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Forensic Science Year 6 GPCC

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Anne Livette

on 21 November 2017

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Transcript of Forensic Science Year 6 GPCC

What is Forensic Science?
Types of Forensic Scientists
DNA Profiling
DNA is short for the scientific words, 'Deoxyribonucleic Acid'. DNA looks like a ladder that is curled around continuously and features about 3 billion rungs that attached to the ladder. The fact that DNA exists in every single cell in the body and only a minute amount is needed for analysis, makes a sample easily obtainable. DNA is also useful in identifying a victim, as we inherit half of our DNA from each parent, and therefore, a part match from the parent of a missing person can reveal the relationship of an unidentified body.
Even with the recent advancements made in the field of DNA analysis, the science of fingerprinting, dactylography, is still commonly used as a form of identification, whether it has been taken in the traditional way using ink and paper or scanned into a computer database. Fingerprint identification is based on the classification of fingerprint patterns, which can not only prove that a person was present at a crime scene, but can also be used to compare with the stored fingerprints of millions of other known criminals.
A lot of blood is lost during a violent assault and it is these bloodstains that can reveal a killer. By studying their position, shape and size, investigators can identify where the attacker stood during the assault, their height, how many times the weapon was used, and if the attacker was left/right-handed. Blood is not easily removed and therefore makes an excellent tool for reconstructing the scene.
Identikit Sketches
Following the Bank of Queensland robbery in Newtown, Sydney, police interviewed an eye witness who supplied police with details of a man seen leaving the crime scene, driving a white van. You are to compile an Identikit photo based on the following evidence:

Man of Asian descent - age 24
long dark hair
dark bushy eyebrows
small nose
narrow eyes
round glasses
goatie beard
small mustache
square jaw
narrow lips
Lip &Foot Prints
Lip Prints

The study of lip prints is called cheiloscopy. A person's lip prints are unique. The use of lip prints in criminal cases is limited because the credibility of lip prints has not been firmly established in our courts. Below is an interesting article about how lip prints were used to identify a Peeping Tom.

NEWPORT NEWS, Va. (AP) - This peeper's pucker landed him in jail.

Robert Neal Smith, 41, was sentenced to five months in jail Friday after pleading guilty to peeping into his neighbor's windows. He was charged with five counts of being a Peeping Tom after his lip prints matched ones left on a window in August.

Police had lifted the impression in September and obtained a search warrant for Smith's lip marks. The state crime lab claimed the two were a match.

Smith told the General District Court judge he was drinking heavily when he peeped into his neighbors' homes. At one point he was chased by a woman's husband and another woman caught him tampering with her window screen.
Every person's style of handwriting is unique and has its own personalised touch. The writing practices we learn during our time at school are very difficult to lose, as we get used to the particular way that we hold a pen, shape the letters we write and how we space our words and lines. It is because of this reason that handwriting is very difficult to disguise and forge, making handwriting analysis an effective tool for incriminating a suspect.
The study of evidence discovered at a crime scene and used in a court of law.
– Identify human remains – can identify age, sex, occupation, disease and inflicted trauma.
– Uses descriptions to produce a detailed sketch of the offender.
Ballistics Expert
– firearms and ammunition. They study the trajectory path and can match bullets with particular weapons.
– Examine a crime scene on a molecular level - including fiber analysis, chemical analysis, and particle analysis.
Computer Scientist
– study user files, system files, deleted files, emails and other information stored on a computer.
– Examine the tissue left on a bullet in order to determine which part of the body the bullet passed through.
– Examining arthropods found on human remains to determine rate of decay, time of death and if a body was moved.
Fingerprint Expert
– Dactyloscopy is the practice of using fingerprint analysis for identification purposes.
- Analyze soil samples to determine where the individual or piece of evidence has been.
– Spoken/ written word tells about intent, education, culture, health, and if two pieces of evidence were from 1 individual.
– Studies teeth and bitemark evidence to identify missing persons, victims of mass disaster and homicide
– study of disease and injury through autopsy to determine the cause and time of death.
– They reconstruct the crime scene by taking photos from every angle.
– A medical doctor who deals with mental health issues.
– Apply psychological knowledge regarding the mental health of victims and offenders to courts .
– Creates 3D likeness of a victim/ offender using clay or computer-generated reconstruction of bone fragments.
– Examines body fluids, most commonly blood, to help identify a victim, suspect or offender. Includes DNA identification.
– The study of substances that are harmful or poisonous to the human body.

Forensic Science
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