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Richard Nixon

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Imri Shajahan

on 4 June 2014

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Transcript of Richard Nixon

Richard M. Nixon
January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994
37th President of U.S.A
Born in Yorba Linda, California
Francis Nixon (Methodist)
Hannah Nixon (Quaker)
4 Brothers - Harold, Donald, Arthur, Edward
His Parents owned a small grocery store in Whittier, California
Accepted into Harvard, but went to Whittier College because of Harold's (brother) illness
Graduated from Duke Law School
Returned to Whittier, California to practice law
Richard Nixon
in high school
Infant Richard Nixon
Fell in love with Thelma "Pat" Ryan while shooting for a play, The Dark Tower
She was reluctant at first, but later agreed to date him
They decided to get married on June 21, 1940
2 children - Tricia & Julie
Richard and Pat introduce Tricia and Julie to Eisenhower at the Washington National airport, September 10, 1952
Foreign Policy
Latin America
Soviet Union
Middle East

Sino-Soviet Split in 1969
Border dispute along the Ussuri River
Came close to nuclear war
Sought US as an ally
"Ally with the enemy far away in order to fight the enemy who is at the gate" -Mao
China Background
Pre-President Career
He became a small town lawyer in Whittier, California
However, unsatisfied with this lowly occupation, he and his family moved to Washington D.C. where he got a job in FDR's Office of Price Administration
Nixon joined the navy and served as a an aviation ground officer in Pacific
Returned to the U.S. with 2 service stars & several commendations
Promoted to rank of Lieutenant
Then, he ran for Congress against five-term liberal Democratic Congressman Jerry Voorhis
Employed the tactic of accusing people of communism
Alger Hiss case brought him national stadium
Nixon took a leading role in investigating Alger Hiss
Bolstered Nixon's reputation as a fervent anti-communist
Yorba Linda, California
Alger Hiss
Vice Presidency
Vice President of Eisenhower during the election of 1954
Two months before the November election, the New York Post reported that Nixon had a secret "slush fund" provided by campaign donors for his personal use
"Checkers Speech" - appealed to the public by referring to the puppy his daughter received
Nixon with his dog, Checkers
Vice President Nixon with President Eisenhower
Vice Presidency (cont.)
On July24, while touring the exhibits with Soviet General Secretary Nikita Khruschev, Nixon stopped at a model of an American kitchen and engaged Khruschev in an debate
These later became called , "Kitchen Debate"
Presentation by: Imrhankhan Shajahan, Sara Klausner, Aaron Friedman & John Li
Election of 1960
Nixon ran against Kennedy and lost narrowly to the handsome JFK
Nixon had advocated selective tax cuts
During the televised debates, Nixon did not look as crisp as JFK and was one of the reasons for his loss
Election results of 1960
Debate between Kennedy & Nixon
Election of 1968
Nixon decided to re-run for president in the elections of 1968 which was the revival of his political career
His campaign depicted him as being a figure of stability
He appealed to the "silent majority" - social conservatives who were the steady foundation of American public
Promised "peace with honor"
end of Vietnam War
restoration of America's preeminence over Soviets
return to conservative values
3 way race
Republicans - Richard M. Nixon
Democrats - Hubert Humphrey
Independent - George Wallace
Richard Nixon
Hubert Humphrey
George Wallace
Domestic Policy: Controversial
2 most controversial domestic proposals
Revenue Sharing
Family Assistance Plan
Revenue Sharing:
Redirected funds to the state and municipal levels, fed gov’t collects taxes and the local gov’t spends it.
Passed after much debate, brings Nixon popularity
Family Assistance Plan
: Wants to replace Aid to Family with Dependent Children, Food Stamps, and Medicaid with
direct cash
Unpopular and criticized by Labor, Caseworkers, and Conservatives
$1600 per year for a family of 4 is insufficient

Domestic Policy Continued: Civil Rights
of black children in the south attended all black schools
Locally controlled desegregation:
As a senator and VP he supported civil rights, but now as President he is more mindful of the southern vote.
Sets up biracial state committees to plan school desegregation starting in
By the end of 1970, only
of black children in the south attended segregated schools

Domestic Policy Continued: Women’s Rights
Campaigned as an equal rights supporter
Increases the number of female appointments to administration positions.
Creates a
President Task Force on Women’s Rights
Tells the Justice Dept. to bring sex discrimination suits under the Civil Rights Act
Orders the Labor Dept. to add sex discrimination provisions to it’s guidelines.

Domestic Policy

New Federalism
” - a system which directed money and power away from the federal bureaucracy and toward the states and municipalities (pbs).
Responds more efficiently to the people’s needs
Not actually a new policy for Nixon, he had been practicing this since he entered congress in 1946.
He opposes big government programs and wants to restore authority on a local level.
Domestic Policy Continued: The Environment
Clean Air Act of 1970:
Car Manufacturers to reduce certain pollutants by 90%
Environmental Protection Agency (
), Occupational Health and Safety Administration (
), 1970 Endangered Species Act (
Creates 2 new agencies
Dept. of Natural Resources
Environmental Protection Agency
Clean Water Act
boosts cost to $18 million
stands by fiscal efficiency (New Federalism)
Must meet the cost-benefit standards of the Office of Management and Budget
Congress overrides the veto though

Economy Continued
Prior to the 1968 Election, unemployment - 4%
End of 1970, rises to 6% as baby boomers join the workforce
July 12, 1971

Emergency Employment Act
Gives money for creation of public service jobs at state and local levels
Effectively creates 150,000 jobs
Designed to assist veterans and aid youth
October 30, 1972
Social Security: Supplemental Security Income
5 billion in benefits for the aged, blind, and disabled

Domestic Policy Continued: The Economy
Inherits a weak economy, takes office: inflation - 4.7%
Wants to reduce inflation by ending the Vietnam War
May 18, 1971:
Nixon signs a
Wage-Price Controls Bill
extending his authority to impose restraints on
wages, prices, salaries and rents
for another year
Congress knew he opposed such controls and didn’t expect him to actually use the authority
With inflation still unresolved and his next election coming up, he placed temporary wage and price controls and suspended the gold standard
(“Nixon Shock”)
Dampens inflation through 1972

Landslide of 1972
Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP) was concerned about the Democratic opposition (George McGovern)
It reverted to political sabotage and covert espionage due to fear of loss
During the campaign in June, 1972, rumors began to circulate about White House involvement in a seemingly isolated burglary of the Democratic National Election Headquarters in the Watergate complex in Washington, D.C.
Richard Nixon downplayed the scandal as just politics.
The investigation was initially begun by two cub-reporters for the Washington Post,
Bob Woodward
Carl Bernstein
By 1973, it had mushroomed into a full scale inquest
FBI eventually confirmed that
Nixon aids
had attempted to sabotage the Democrats during the election, and many resigned in the face of criminal prosecution.
Denial & Refusal
Nixon continued to declare his innocence, repeatedly denying previous knowledge about the campaign sabotage and claiming to have learned about the cover-up in early 1973
"I'm not a crook."
President refused to release and information on the scandal, claiming executive privilege
Facing increased political pressure, Nixon released 1200 pages of transcripts of conversations between him and White House aides, but refused to release all the tape recordings.
July 1974
, the Supreme Court denied Richard Nixon's claim of executive privilege and ruled that all the tape recordings must be released to the special prosecutor,
Leon Jaworski
One of the secret recordings confirmed the allegations of the cover-up indicating that Nixon knew from the beginning.
Resignation and Pardon
August 9, 1974
- Nixon resigns due to fear of impeachment
Nixon had appointed
Gerald Ford
after Spiro Agnew had resigned on accounts of bribery
Nixon was pardoned by President Ford on
September 8, 1974
for all his crimes
This was one of the most embarrassing moments in the history of America
became a name associated with political scandals ever since
The Downfall of Nixon...
Watergate Complex
Events During Nixon's Presidency
1969- Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon
1971- 26th Amendement is ratified, giving 18 year-olds the right to vote
1971- The Supreme Court authorized school busing for desegregation

More Events During Presidency
1971- Women were officially permitted to play five-player, full-court basketball.
1972- The Equal Rights Amendment was sent for ratification to the US States and finally died in 1982.
More Events
1972- Title IX of the Education Amendments succeeded in banning sex discrimination in schools for education, sports, and other activities.
1973- End of Vietnam War
1973- Bruce Springsteen releases Greetings From Asbury Park
More Events
1973- Roe v. Wade Supreme Court case stopped all US States from outlawing abortion.
1973- Arab nations embargoed all oil shipments to the US to force the country to stop supporting for Israel, unsuccessfully. Nixon maintained that the USA must continue to support Israel
1974- Patricia Hearst, daughter of newspaper tycoon Randolph Hearst, kidnapped by Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA)
1974-The Equal Credit Opportunity Act passed, preventing discrimination in consumer credit practices because sex, race, marital status, religion, national origin, age, or receipt of public assistance.
1974- The Supreme Court ruled in favor of equal pay for women for equal work
Ping-Pong Diplomacy
Needed U.S. against Soviet Union
Wanted Taiwan back
Invited U.S. table tennis team to tour China
First step to improving relations

Testing the Waters
Mao invites Nixon to China
Kissinger, National Security Adviser, dispatched instead
Successful meeting- laid groundwork for Nixon

Nixon Goes to China
February 21, 1971: Nixon arrives in Beijing
Greeted by Premier Zhou Enlai
First president to visit China
Publicized with television
“The week that changed the world”

The Meeting
Conclusion of the Shanghai Communique
Opened the door between U.S. and China
Recognized Taiwan as part of China
China will not interfere in Vietnam
Contain Soviet Union

Détente- Release of tension between Soviet Union and U.S.
Feared Sino-America alliance

Nixon Doctrine
May 1969: Started pulling American troops out but still aided South Vietnam
Withdrew 400K troops over next 3 years
Vietnamization and the Nixon Doctrine appealed to the "Silent Majority"
Supporter of Kennedy in Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile Crisis
Maintained close relations with Cuban-American exile community
Disliked Cuba and Castro

Soviets and Cubans feared Nixon might attack Cuba
1970- Soviets asked Nixon to consider Kennedy and Khrushchev relationship
Minor confrontation at Cienfuegos with ballistic missiles

Elected Marxist candidate Salvador Allende as President in 1970
Nixon and Kissinger tried to convince the Chilean congress to confirm Jorge Alessandri as winner
Decided a coup to overthrow

Beliefs that Nixon funded strikes against Allende
Used $700,000 to print anti-Allende messages in Chilean newspaper
Augusto Pinochet put in power after violent coup d’etat

Nixon Goes to USSR
May 22, 1972: First president to visit Moscow
Met with Leonid Brezhnev, the General Security of the Communist Party

The Moscow Summit of 1972
Increased trades
U.S.-Soviet Incidents at Sea agreement
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
November 1969-May 1972
Limited strategic ballistic missile launchers
Allowed to replace intercontinental ballistic missile for submarine-launched ballistic missile
Increased number of missiles with multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle

Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
Limited the anti-ballistic missile system to two per military site
Limited ABMs capable of defending “strategic” ballistic missiles
ICBMs and SLBMs were limited
Counter-tactical ABMs were produced in response
Enforced for 30 years

Nixon returned to Moscow in 1974 (little accomplished)
Critics say Nixon cleverly used China to ally with Soviet Union
Triangular Diplomacy

Vietnam War
March 1969: Operation Menu - Secret bombing of North Vietnam and Cambodia
Nixon tries to negotiate peace settlements, but cannot reach agreements
By 1969
300 soldiers lost every week
$60 to $80 million spent per day
War Ending
Nixon launches another mass bombing on North Vietnamese capital, Hanoi in late 1972
January 1973: Paris Peace Accords settlements (finally reach agreements)
Conditions not much better than 1969's talks
25K lives lost in that time
War Powers Act checks president power
One of Nixon's greatest failure was his prolonging of the war
Served as Vice-President to Eisenhower (
"New Federalism" - more power to states
Fought against communism with various levels of success
Watergate - biggest hit to Nixon
Richard M. Nixon
37'th President of the United States of America
Public Opposition
Continued North Vietnam bombings
Invaded Laos to hurt supply routes
Called for invasion of Cambodia
Met with public protests (5/1970) at Kent State and Jackson State College
Nixon pulls out of Cambodia, but secret bombings continue
Further peace talks with President Nguyen Van Thieu dragged on
Pentagon Papers: Daniel Ellsberg leaks documents showing "credibility gap"
Credibility gap widens when people find out about secret bombings
Arab Oil Crisis
The US supported Israel against Syria and Egypt
Arab countries launch an oil embargo on the US, causing a fuel crisis
US sets up 55 mph speed limit and refineries in Alaska
No more cheap oil
Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries lifts ban in 1974
Full transcript