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Transcript of World Geography
Staar Prezi Absolute location- exact, place, geographic, feature
Relative location- place, relation, other, place around
Equator-imaginary, line, encircles, globe
Prime meridian- imaginary line, longitude, half
Latitude- imaginary line, parallel, equator
Longitude- imaginary lines, dividing, east and west Topographic map- general, reference, map, natural and
Global positioning system- satellites, rely, information, earth
Geographic information systems- technology, digital map, info, databank
Scale- ratio, unit, length, distance, earth
Physical map-map, landforms, water, specific, area
Political map- features, surface, human created
Thematic map-specific, information Thematic map-specific, information
Formal Regions-region, limited #, related characteristics
Functional Regions-region, interactions, connections, place
Perceptual regions-region, people, see, characteristics, place Lithosphere-solid, rock, earth, surface
Hydrosphere-water, comprising, earth, surface
Atmosphere-layers, gases, surrounding, air
Biosphere-living part of the earth Core-center, earth
Mantel-soft-layer, molten rock, center
Magma-molten, rock, melts, crust
Crust-thin, layer, earth, rock Hydrologic cycle- circulation, water, earth
Drainage Basin- area, drained, major body of
Water table- rock, saturated
Landforms-natural, feature, earth
Delta- triangular area, divides body of water
Glacier-large, mass, ice, moves by gravity Internal Forces Shaping the Earth tectonic plates /forces-an enormous moving shelf that forms the earth’s crust
divergent boundary -plates that move apart or spread
convergent boundary-plates collide with each other, causing one plate to either dive under or ride up over the other plate
transform boundary -when tectonic plates slide past one another
fault-a fracture in the earth’s crust where plates move past each other Earthquakes,Tsunami, seismograph-measures the size of the waves created by an earthquake
epicenter-the point directly above the focus(where the earthquake begins) on the earth’s surface where
Richter Scale -Uses information collected by seismographs to determine the relative strength of an earthquake
tsunami- a giant wave in the ocean caused by an earthquake
Ring of Fire-A zone around the rim of the Pacific Ocean where the majority of active volcanoes are found mechanical weathering -a natural process that breaks rock into smaller pieces chemical
Wathering-a process that changes rock into a new substance through interactions among elements in the air or water and the minerals in the rock
Eosion-the result of weathering on matter, created by the action of wind, water, ice, or gravity
glaciations-the changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers
Soil and Vegetation
humus- organic material in soil
soil- building he process where organic material becomes fertile soil
ecosystem- an interdependent community of plants and animals
biomes- regional ecosystems. Biomes are divided into forest, grassland, desert, and tundra External Forces Shaping the Earth Seasons solstice-either of two times of year when the sun’s rays shine directly overhead at noon at the farthest points north or south.
equinox - each of the two days in a year on which day and night are equal in length; marks the beginning of spring and autumn
Tropic of Cancer-The farthest point north the sun’s rays shine overhead at noon
Tropic of Capricorn -The farthest point south the sun’s rays shine overhead at noon Weather and Climate weather- the condition of the atmosphere at a particular location and time
climate- the typical weather conditions at a particular location.
timeprecipitation-falling water droplets in te form of rain, sleet, snow.
hurricane-a storm that forms over warm, tropical ocean
aterstyphoon-a tropical storm, like a hurricane, that occurs in the western Pacific
tornado-a powerful funnel-shaped column of spiraling
rblizzard- a heavy snowstorm with winds of more than 35 miles per hour and reduced visibility of less than one climate climate region-a region that experiences particular weather conditions over many years.
tropical - refers to regions with little variation in temperature.
permafrost-permanently frozen ground
Culture and Population
culture-the total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members of a group
ethnic minority - an individual who identifies with the minority population of a region.
inority-an individual who belongs to a minority religion in a region. India is largely a Hindu nation yet it also has a sizeable Muslim and Sikh populations climate Cultural Change and Exchange
multicultural society -a population that contains several culture groups.
innovation- taking existing elements of society and creating something new to meet a need.
diffusion- the spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior to different societies
cultural hearth-the heartland or place of origin of a major culture; a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to other cultures
acculturation- the cultural change that occurs when individuals in a society accept or adopt an innovation Cultural Beliefs and Expression
custom- practice routinely followed by a group of people
nationalism- a belief that people or ethnic groups should have their own government or homeland.
patriotism- devotion to one’s country.
cultural landscapes- the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape.
monotheistic- a belief in the existence of only one god
Christianity- Christianity is a monotheistic religion which is also the world’s largest religion by membership. Christianity is based on the teachings of Jesus.
Islam- Islam is the world’s second largest religion.
Judaism- A religion with its roots in the teachings of Abraham (from Ur), who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god.
Sikhism-A religion based in northern India. Sikhism combines the Hindu concept of reincarnation with Islamic belief in monotheism. Worldwide there are 30 million Sikhs.
polytheistic- a belief in the existence in may gods
Buddhism- A religion founded in the sixth century and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would come through knowledge, especially self-knowledge; elimination of greed, craving, and desire; complete honesty; and never hurting another person or animal.
Hinduism- One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back 4000 year, and originating in the Indus River Valley.
animistic- The belief that inanimate objects, such as hills, trees, rocks, rivers, and other elements of the natural landscape, possess souls and can help or hinder human efforts on Earth birthrate- the number of live births per total population, often expressed per thousand population
fertility rate- the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime, if she had children at the current rate for her country
mortality rate- the number of deaths per thousand
infant mortality the number of deaths among infants under age one as measured per thousand live births
population pyramids- graphic devices that show gender and age distribution of a population
life expectancy- An amount in years indicating how long, on average, a resident of a particular place is expected to live
literacy rate-An amount, usually a percentage, of a given population who possess the ability to read and write
population density -the average number of people who live in a measurable area Push and pull factors- push factors push people from their homeland, while pull factors attract people to a new
migration- the movement of peoples within a country or region
connectivity -the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network
democracy- a type of government in which citizens hold political power either directly or through elected representatives
dictatorship- a type of government in which an individual or group holds complete political power
monarchy - a type of government in which a ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with citizen bodies
republic - a government in which citizens elect representatives to rule on their behalf
theocracy- a state whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided. Vatican City and the country of Iran are theocracies
totalitarian- a political system where the state controls all political and economic power. Media is censored by the state and few individual rights exist. The Soviet Union under Josef Stalin and Nazi Germany are examples of totalitarian governments. Movement metropolitan area-a functional area including a city and its surrounding suburbs and exurbs, linked economically
suburbs- a political unit or community touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the city
urbanization- the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result
sustainable development- economic and or population growth that does not impact the environment in a lasting negative manner
infrastructure- the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems Settlement Patterns Demographic Indicators Religion
Globalization -The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact.
Outsourcing - when production is moved from one location to another usually to address the rising cost of labor.
free trade zone- areas where imported goods are not subject to the same regulations and import taxes (custom duties and tariffs) that might exist elsewhere.
Export - a product or good that is sold from one country to another. Exports are favorable to the selling, or exporting, country and a drain on the economy of the receiving country. For example, Americans buy coffee from Brazil. Brazilian farmers benefit as American dollars leave the country
Import- a product that is purchased from one country by another.
NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement. Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries
New World- The popular name given to the Americas by European explorers and colonists. Columbian Exchange- The exchange of plants, animals and disease between the New and Old Worlds following the arrival of the Europeans.
Colony- an outpost in a foreign land. Some colonies are established for economic purposes to further trade while others are settlements for emigrants
Louisiana Purchase- The territory under U.S. control nearly doubled under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase.
Frontier-the open lands beyond the last populated settlements. In American History, the frontier is associated with the West.
Dust Bowl- A climatic disaster in the Great Plains region caused by poor farming techniques and continued drought. Many people were “pushed” away from Oklahoma and “pulled” toward California. Geography
Continental divide- the line of the highest points in North America that marks the separation between rivers flowing eastward and westward
Prairie- the temperate grasslands of North America; “prairie” is the French word for meadow
Tornado Alley- A region in the Midwest United States where most of the countries tornadoes occur
Rust Belt- The economically depressed region surrounding the Great Lakes.
Sun Belt- The economically expanding region of the Southern United States. Low labor costs and mild winters have led many businesses to relocate there. Population
Native Americans /Peoples- The inhabitants of the Americas at the time when the Europeans first arrived to the New World
Baby Boomers- Babies born after the Second World War but before the mid-1960.
Inuit- Native peoples of Alaska and Northern Canada. Often Inuits are called Eskimos
Metis- A person born from a mixed union. Typically, the term is used to describe Canadians whose parentage is European (usually French) and Amerindian.
Bilingualism- where two or more languages are spoken.
Aztec People- Ancient peoples of Central Mexico. The Aztec Empire ended with the arrival of the Spanish
Mestizo- A person born from a mixed union.
Mayan People- Ancient peoples of the Yucatan Peninsula, northern Central America.
Taino- A group of peoples who inhabited the Caribbean Islands at the time of the European conquest.
Inca People- Ancient peoples of western South America. The Inca Empire is considered a cultural hearth. Geography
Cerrado- a savanna that has flat terrain and moderate rainfall that is suitable for farming. The cerrado savannas are located in the interior of Brazil
Pampas- a savanna that has flat terrain and moderate rainfall that is suitable for farming. The pampas are located in northern Argentina and Uruguay
Rain forest- dense forests found in tropical regions. Rain forests receive large amounts of rain and are typically hot all year. The largest rain forest in the world is the Amazon rain forest
Isthmus- a narrow strip of land connecting to larger landmasses usually with water on either side. The Panama Canal was constructed on the isthmus of Panama
El Nino- A weather pattern created by the warming of the waters off the coast of South America, which pushes warm water and heavy rains toward the Americas and produces drought conditions in Australia and Asia
Terraced farming- an ancient technique for growing crops on hillsides or mountain slopes, using step-like horizontal fields cut into the slopes
Remittances- Money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries.
Migratory labor- workers who move with the availability or opportunity of employment.
Informal economy- economic activities that take place outside official channels, without benefits or protection for workers History
Renaissance- A period of European history when there was a renewed interest in learning and the arts.
Bubonic Plague- The Bubonic Plague , or Black Death was a pandemic outbreak occurring in the 15th century.
Pandemics- a disease affecting a large population over a wide geographic area
Genocide- the deliberate extermination of a population based on some common characteristic
Industrial Revolution- The shift, beginning in England during the 18th century, from making goods by hand to making them by machine
Peninsula- a landmass nearly surrounded by water but connected to the mainland
Fjords- a long, narrow deep inlet of the sea between steep slopes
North Atlantic Drift- a current of warm water from the tropics that flows near Europe’s west coast; the current impacts western Europe’s weather
Arctic Circle- Tundra climate region where the land is often in a state of permafrost.
Terpen-high earthen platforms that, along with dikes, are part of a seaworks project
Polder- that is reclaimed from the sea or other body of water by diking and drainage European Union-The European Union, or EU, is a political and economic alliance among 27 countries of Europe.
Euro- The common currency used by the members of the eurozone
Eurozone- A monetary union among 17 of the European Union’s 27 members.
Tariff- taxes placed on imported goods Economy UNIT 9 East Asia
March 11th- March 28th
Dynasty- a series of rulers from the same family
People’s Republic of China- The communist government formed in China following the defeat of the Japanese in World War II and the American-supported Nationalist Army.
Hiroshima- name of the Japanese city that was targeted for first American atomic bomb attack
Korean War- A three- year period of open warfare between the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea following the defeat of Japan to end the Second World War.
United Nations- An international peacekeeping organization founded in 1945 to provide security to the nations of the world
Typhoon- a tropical storm ,like a hurricane, that occurs in the western Pacific
Pacific Rim- An economic and social region including the countries surrounding the Pacific Ocean, extending clockwise from New Zealand in the western Pacific to Chile in the eastern Pacific and including the west coast of the United States
Landlocked- having no outlet to the sea
Hydroelectric power- Electricity generated by hydropower through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
Economic tiger- a country with rapid economic growth due to cheap labor, high technology, and aggressive exports
nuclear power- Energy produced by nuclear reactors
export economy- an economy that is highly dependent on exports.
Multinational- a corporation that engages in business world wide
Shintoism- Shintoism is a religion of 4 million observers who live primarily in Japan.
Taoism- Taoism, or Daoism, is a philosophy based on the ideas of the Chinese thinker Laozi.
one-child policy- A policy limiting families to one child in an effort to reduce the overall population.
Han People- The Han people are the largest ethnic group in the world comprising over 20% of the world’s total population.
Samurai- a professional soldier in Japan who served the interests of landowners and clan chiefs
Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica April 1st- April 19th
Bikini atoll- The isolated reef, located in he Marshall Islands of the central Pacific.
Khmer Empire- A powerful empire that lasted roughly from the 9th to the 15th centuries in what is now Cambodia
Indochina- A French colony comprised of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam; it won independence from France in 1954
Vietnam War- The military conflict resulting from American involvement in South Vietnam to prevent it takeover by Communist North Vietnam
high islands- Pacific islands created by volcanoes
low islands- Pacific islands made up of coral reefs
Great Barrier Reef- A 1,250 mile chain of more than 2,500 reefs and islands along Australia’s northeast coast, containing some 400 species of coral
Outback- The dry, unpopulated inland region of Australia
polar desert- A cold-weather region where the average temperature does not exceed 10 degrees Fahrenheit
Krakatoa- A massive volcanic explosion that occurred off the coasts of the islands of Java and Sumatra in 1883.
ASEAN- Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or ASEAN, an alliance that promotes economic growth and peace in the region
Subsistence activities- activity in which a family produces only the food, clothing, and shelter they themselves need
Poverty rate- The poverty rate, or poverty line, is a measure of the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a given region
Aboriginal people- People who migrated to Australia from Asia at least 40,000 years ago; the original settlers of the land
Maori- The first settlers of New Zealand who had migrated from Polynesia more than 1,000 years ago
Stolen Generation- In Australia, what Aboriginal people today call the 100,000 mixed-raced children who were taken by the government and given to white families to promote assimilation