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Satellites

What are they? How were the first one and how are they now? What do we use them for?
by

Matilde Sánchez

on 12 March 2013

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Transcript of Satellites

Ana Pita Manzanares
Matilde Sánchez Zamorano Satellites What do we use them for? Artificial satellites have led to a complete revolution in current communications.

They allow us to receive TV and radio signal, or obtain information about the weather conditions, as some examples.

We can divide artificial satellites attending to their application: The first satellites Satellites contribution and development What are they? A satellite is an object which orbits around another object with a larger mass. There are different types of satellites:
Natural satellites
Artificial satellites:
Scientific investigation
Weather
Communications
Navigation
Military COMMUNICATIONS WEATHER MILITARY NAVIGATION SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Their main objective is the aid in scientific researches, such as the study of our planet: the Earths surface, its environment and the atmosphere. How does a artificial satellite work? A satellite works by receiving a series of radio signals sent from the Earth and resending the radio signals back down to our planet. In a simple system, a signal is reflected, or bounced off the satellite.
They are mainly used to monitor the weather and atmospheric conditions of our planet, as they are specialized in the study of the terrestrial atmosphere.

These type of artificial satellites have helped occasionally to detect natural phenomena, which could en up in disaster, and therefore, to prevent its consequences. A natural satellite is a celestial body or satellite whose origin is natural, not man-made. They are also called secondary planets or more commonly named moons, but we need to take into account that not only what we know as "moon" is a natural satellite, as planets, asteroids and comets . First weather satellite The first example of weather satellite was the "Vanguard 2", launched in 1959.

It was designed in order to measure the cloud cover and its resistance , but its poor axis rotation kept it form collecting an useful amount of data. They are launched with the purpose of telecommunications, and they are essential in the direct broadcast of television and radio services, telephony, mobile communications and internet access. They are used with military purposes, such as spies to obtain information from their enemy martial actions or plans. They were mainly developed during the Cold War, and commonly used since then. Sputnik The first artificial satellite launched in space, was Sputnik, and it was created by scientist who worked for the Soviet Union. It was launched the October 4, 1957.

The fact the the soviets were able to launch satellites, created fear in the americans, as that quantity of development and knowledge could be used in order to launch ballistic missiles that carried nuclear weapons.

While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and a space race between the US and the URSS. Explorer I On January 31, 1958, the US launched their first satellite, called the Explorer I.

The satellite carried a scientific payload which discovered the magnetic radiation belts around planet

NASA: "Because of the limited space available and the requirements for low weight, the Explorer I instrumentation was designed and built with simplicity and high reliability in mind. It was completely successful." Characteristics of the satellites Structure Usually, artificial satellites are equipped with sensors and all kind of machinery that allow them to obtain information, receive radio signals and bounce these back to an specific point in our planet. Antennas and transceivers send and receive radio signals to and from the Earth or another satellite;
Rocket motors move the satellite in space;
Fuel tanks store the fuel for the rocket;
Solar pannels use solar cells to turn the sun's energy into electricity;
Batteries store the electricity generated by the solar panels; and.
On-board processors part of the satellite that controls and tell the satellite to do what humans want it to do. Propulsion system
Location system
Power system
Communication system
Thermal control system
Command system Bibliography They are satellites placed in the Earth orbital with the specific purpose of collaborating with sea and air navigation. These satellites can provide the basis for all-weather, long-term navigation systems to determine accurately geodetic positions, speed and direction of any surface vehicle or aircraft, north reference and vertical reference. An example is the russian satellite "Zenit 2", launched in 1961, which was designed to intercept radar signals. Applications
The first satellites where used mainly with researching purposes, in order to try to obtain as deeper data as possible about the unknown outer space.

Anyway, the years after the the first satellite reached space, were dedicated in many aspects to the investigation of application of the next launched satellites, which led up to advances in communication basically, in which we can highlight the intercontinental long-distance calling. The First Satellites: Saint Mary's Roman Catholic Church. Retrieved 09/03/2013 , from http://www.stmary.ws/highschool/physics/97/LB Apuntes de clases de Cosmovisión : Primeros satélites artificiales; Apuntes de clases de Cosmovisión. Retrieved 09/03/2013, from http://apuntesydatos.blogspot.com.es/2008/07/primeros-satlites-artificiales.html NASA - What Is a Satellite?: NASA - Home. Retrieved (09/03/2013), from http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/what-is-a-satellite-k4.html Sanoh17; Los satélites y sus aplicaciones: upload & Share PowerPoint presentations and documents. Retrieved 09/03/2013, from http://www.slideshare.net/Sanoh17/los-satelites-artificiales.html Parabolic satellite communication antenna. In the last few years, new technologies have attached a great importance to modern artificial satellites.
One of the most important advances in this area has been communication. , In this technological era, communication via satellite has contributed to the transformation of the human dimensions"space" and "time", which thank to these type o satellites, are no more a limit for communication, as it was before. Satellites have undergo different changes which have allow the to develop and improve essential fields, such as communication, navigation ¡, or weather.
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