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Transcript of Special Education
Physical disabilities are orthopedic impairments
Cerebal palsy: realates to movement or posture happening in the brain
Spina bifida: malformation of the spinal cord
Other health impairments are chronic or acute health problems that result in limitations of strength,vitality, or alertness and affect educational performance.
Epilepsy: seizures that either are partial seizures and generalized
Asthma :chronic lung condition
Self-awareness should be taught.
Drivers education is important
Picture books really help these children
Teach them daily living skills such as orientation, mobility and self-determination.
62% of students are in regular classes 80-100% of the time
Most of them receive educational services along side their peers so they are measured on the same curriculum.
placement in quite area
Gifted and Talented Students
Under the "other health impairments" category
Lower standardized test scores
Heredity is a cause as well as environment
Usually determined by Conner's Rating scale
sit the student close to the teacher
do not sit them near highly distracting objects
Self-directed learning strategies:
antecedent cue regulation
field observations, time sampling, event recording
IEP-linked content data
About Special Education
The span is birth through age 21
IDEA describes SE as specially designed instruction with no cost to the child's parents.
Special Education is specialized to each student.
IDEA has 6 principles:
Lease restrictive environment
Procedural due process
Parental and student participation
Medication is often needed.
Computer assistance may be helpful along with video self-monitoring.
need help with self-regulation and self-monitoring
Accomidations for testing
may need extra breaks
different testing sessions
a reduced-distraction testing site
Monitor progress by curriculum based measurement and also measure their social skills and self-control.
A devlopmental disorder that affects a students verbal and nonverbal communication, social interaction, and educational performance.
Starts by age 3.
part of broader group called pervasive developmental disorders and in that group is Asperger syndrome.
Low rates of inclusion
36% in regular classes 80-100% of the time
Positive behavior support
Autism Screening Instrument for Educational Planning has 5 components:
Most frequent is Autism Behavior Checklist
The Sample of Vocal Behavior subscale
Social Interaction Assessment
high general intellect
41 states have the title "Gifted and talented"
Gardners multiply intelligences theory is very important in education.
Assessing them by monitoring thier progress in their classes and in the gifted programs.
They may not need special accommodations but they still want special attention.
IEP: Individualized Education Program
Many people are involved in IEP's
general education teacher
special education teacher
representative of school system
They become effective at the beginning of the school year.
Very important to help the child succeed.
Should be based on both general education curriculum and the students personal needs.
8 components of IEP.
Levels of acheievement
Measure of progress
Progress in the General Education Cirriculum
Progress is what federal law promotes.
It is achieved in general education curriculum by standards-based reform.
ESEA requires them to include children with disabilities.
IEP teams must decide what accommodations are needed for that child with special needs.
Universal Design and Inclusion
Universal design is making buildings, and other areas accessibility for all people.
Universal design for learning is making sure the design of instructional methods is available to all students.
Inclusion has 4 key parts:
Principle of Natural proportions
Reconstruction Teaching and learning
age and grade appropriate placement
Culture and How It Relates
Culture can be defined as beliefs, customs, and traits of a race, religion or social group. Basically the way someone lives their life.
African American students with disiblity are more likely to spend most of thier time in a different setting.
Racial/ethic considerations are major factors in disproportionate placement.
Families who have a child with a disability are:
89% more likely to skip a meal because of lack of money.
72% more likely to not pay rent
61% more likely to postpone medical care
83% more likely to postpone detail care
7 partnerships with families include
Includes understanding or using language,spoken or written.
semantic memory problems
Have difficulty with long and short term memory
Test accommodations include:
Students who have a LD have a high inclusion rate in general education classrooms.
Self-advocacy can help theses students make the transition from high school to college.
The normally experience higher level of anxiety and more social challenges than other students.
LD's have genetic and environmental causes.
Communication: recieving, understanding and expressing information,feelings and ideas.
Speech disorder: hard time pronouncing sounds
Language disorders: receiving, understanding, and creating ideas
Expressive: difficult time formulating ideas
Receptive: difficult time receiving or understanding
This disorder can affect a child's socail and emotional well-being.
Students with Communication disorders may need additional time to take testsor access to a word processor but many need no other help.
Assistive technology includes any piece of equipment that helps a person complete various functions: like communicating.
Augmentative and alternative communication(AAC)
86% of students in regular classes 80-100% of the time.
Curriculum based assessment can help monitor students progress.
Teachers need to know that students with LD understand what they are teaching.
Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Have to have one or more of the following over a long period of time:
Inability to learn
inability to maintain relationships
a passive, depressive or unhappy mood
develop fears or physical problems when it comes to school or personal issues.
These students need to obtain conflict-resolution skills to be able to be successful.
These students have one of the lowest rates of inclusion in a regular education classroom.
Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Some accommodation for assessment may be longer test times, individually taking test and allowing the students to take breaks during testing.
allows the teachers to frequently test their students and monitor their success. This allows them to give extra time to those who do not succeed.
Asking questions to the whole class can be helpful and also cooperative learning stratigies like group work.
39% of these students are in regular classes 80-100% of the time.
50% of students with EBD drop out of school.
The American Association on Intellectional and Developmental Disibilities(AAID) defines it as "significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavioral as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive styles."
Come about before the age of 18.
These students achieve higher academically when placed in regular education classes.
Assistive technology that could help include:
audio and video resources
They need to be taught skills that will help them live alone.
Measure progress by:
Response-by response data
Instructional and test data
Accommodations for assessment
Dictating responses to a scribe
Having extended time to complete a task
Having test items read to them
Securing classifications of test items
Causes of Intellectual disability
Timing classification: prenatal, perinatal and postnatal.
Type classification: biomedical,social, behavioral and educational.
Schools use this term as a section of students who need help with their intellectual,adaptive,motor,sensory,or communication needs. These impairments usually come in a combination of each other.
Three quarters of all children who have it, is because of a biological cause.
Apgar test measures the health of a newborn.
Peer tutoring can lead to increased academic scores and help social skills.
Partial participation allows students to spend the most time possible in a regular classroom setting and in community settings.
About half of all students with multiple disorders spend most of their day outside general education
24% spend it in separate settings.
Accomadations for Assessment:
Have a familar person had out standardized tests
collecting data on school referrals
types of problematic behavior
changes in absences and tardiness
Physical Disabilities and other heath impairments
Computer based curriculum based mesurements
In PE, teachers should focus on different things such as cardiovascular outcomes.
Accommodations for testing
Traumatic Brain Injury
Acquired brain injury caused by some brain damage by extreme physical force.
1.7 million people annually receive a TBI.
Changes because of a TBI:
Glasgow Outcomes scale
best verbal response
best motor response
45% in regular classes 80-100% of the time
Traumatic Brain Injury
Effective Teaching methods and ideas
Technologies such as alarms, pagers, etc.
problem solving and decision making skills
different types of test questions
Story retelling can be very helpful.
It can be really difficult to assess these students.
interpreting the instructions can be helpful
giving them a longer time to take the test
changing the format
Deaf and hard of hearing
Conductive loss casued by problem to outer and middle ear.
Sensorineural caused by a problem in inner ear or along nerve pathway.
Effective teaching strategies:
access to language rich environment
reading is important
54% in regular classrooms 80-100% of the time.
Sign lanuage can be very important.
In education, it is defined as an impairment in vision that affects a students educational performance.
Range and variety of Experiences
Ability to get around
Interactions with the environment
Functional Vision assessment(FVA) : determines the affect of disorder on student.
Glasses, large print, magnifying lenses
Turnbull, A. P., Turnbull, H. R., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2013). Exceptional lives: Special education in today's schools. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson.