Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Ch 6 Ancient Rome & Early Christianity

No description
by

Jillian Pultro

on 15 January 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Ch 6 Ancient Rome & Early Christianity

Ch 6 Ancient Rome & Early Christianity

Geography of Rome
Why bother studying Ancient Rome?
Geography of Rome cont'd
How would you expand the empire of Rome?
Fall of Rome
At the end of the rule of Marcus Aurelius the economy starts declining and the city is still dealing with a 10 yr plague

What would your plan be to fix the economy of Rome?
Idea 2
Caesar
Have you ever needed to be a leader?
What challenges did you face?
How did others respond to you as leader?
Rise and Spread of Christianity
Who is Jesus to you?
A man who changed history, a character from Bible stories you've grown up with, God's perfect Son who we are supposed to be like
Does He have a place of honor in your life?
Describe the idea you think is best
Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization
~Greco-Roman culture-mix of Greek, Hellenistic & Roman culture-considered classical civilization
~Focused on ideals of strength, performance & solidarity
First Romans
~753 BC-Founded by Romulus
~Latins, Greeks & Etruscans battled for Rome
-Latins took Rome
-Greeks set up trading colonies
-Etruscans- metalworkers & engineers in N Italy
The Republic
~Established 509 BC
~Ruled by two Consuls
-Elected yearly
-Commanders of army
-Mostly patricians
~Patricians-wealthy landowning families who descended from original senators
~Plebians-common people, farmers, merchants, majority of pop.
~Tribunes-could initiate/veto legislation, protected rights of plebians
Military
~Dominated for over 1000 years
~Service to Rome valued, militarily focused
~Disciplined, tough, powerful, focused, brutal, organized
-Legions-military units, about 5000 infantry
~Expanded the empire
~Attacked by the Gauls around 390 BC, destroyed Rome
~Regained power under Camillus-military hero
Collapse of the Republic
~Wealthy - large estates, hired slaves
~Smaller farmers struggled, many former soldiers
-Sold farms to landowners-became homeless
-Stayed and became seasonal migrant workers
-Went to cities for work, urban poor
~Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus proposed reforms to help the poor
-limited size of estates
-gave land to poor
Julius Caesar
~Caesar, Crassus & Pompey ruled as a triumvirate-group of 3 rulers
~Strong leader with excellent military strategy
~Led army across the Rubicon River (Italy), marched across Rome
~Defeated Pompey's armies in Greece, Asia, Spain & Egypt
~Returned to Rome in 46 BC with the support of the army & populace
~Named dictator for life in 44 BC
Caesar Augustus
~Octavian-great nephew of Caesar & adopted heir
~He & Mark Antony took down Brutus & Cassius
~Formed Second Triumvirate - divided power of Rome
-Octavian-western provinces
-Mark Antony-eastern provinces
-Lepidus-Africa
~Triumvirate dissolved - tensions grew between rulers
~Octavian beat Antony & Cleopatra in Egypt at the Battle of Actium

Jesus
~Luke 1:32-33
-Son of God who will reign forever in His kingdom
~Luke 2:1-20
-Born in Bethlehem in a manger, visited by shepherds
~Matt. 3:13-17
-Jesus baptism, identified Himself with man, although He was sinless.
-An example to followers and start of His ministry
~Matt 4:1-11, Luke 4:1-13 - Jesus tempted
-No use of supernatural powers for own needs, not used to win over large crowds, no compromise with Satan
~Luke 8:40-56- Miracles of Healing
-Faith healed her
~Luke 15:1-32- Parable of lost sheep, coin & prodigal son
-Value and joy of true repentance
~Matt 26:36-46- Garden of Gethsemane
-Christ asked for any other way and obeyed God's plan
~Matt 27:11-66- Trial and death
-Pontius Pilate-Roman governor in Jerusalem
~Matt 28: 1-15 Resurrection
-The empty tomb and a risen Lord
Paul
~Acts 7:58, 8:1-3- Intro
-
Sanhedrin, persecuted Christians
~9:1-19 Conversion
-
Blinded and fasted & prayed for 3 days, healed and accepted Christ
~9:20-31 Start of ministry
~13:1-43 First Missionary journey with Barnabas
~27:1-28:31 Paul's journey to Rome
~
Romans written to Roman church
-Presents the gospel and God's plan for redemption of Jew & Gentile & relationship between them
~Romans 1:1-2:1-16
~3:21-31, 5:1-21, 6:1-23, 8:26-39, 12:1-21
Persecution
~
Jewish Diaspora-rebelled against Rome and spread across the land
~People were drawn to the Christians of early church - no exclusions for salvation
~AD 64-
Emperor Nero-blamed Christians for fire that destroyed most of Rome
-Tortured, arrested Christians, convicted for having "anti-social beliefs"
-Covered in wild animal skins, torn to death by dogs, crucified, set on fire
Spread of Power
~Pattern of expansion
-Land given to poor Roman citizens
-More land=more $ for weapons & armor=larger army=more land
~Rights of conquered people
-Neighboring Latins-full citizenship
-Farther territories-full citizenship except the vote
-Allies (all others)-supplied troops to Rome & no alliances with other states allowed
~Built roads - move army quickly
~Sea and land routes for trade
Punic Wars
~Rome - dominant power in Italy
~Carthage, powerful N African city-state, leading maritime power in the world

-1st-264 BC: Rome defeated Carthage, gained control of Sicily & Corsica, empire gained naval & land power

-2nd-202 BC: Hannibal invaded Italy, defeated by Rome-gained control of W Mediterranean & most of Spain

-3rd-146 BC: Romans took & destroyed Carthage, sold inhabitants into slavery, Carthage - Roman province.
Economics
~
Weakened by
-Hostile tribes outside the empire
-Pirates - disrupted trade
-Reached limit of expansion-lack of gold & silver
~Inflation-drastic drop in the value of money and rise in prices
-Coins continually made out of less silver
~Agriculture was failing
-Harvests in Italy and western Europe declined
-Overworked soil-shortage of food, spread of disease

Diocletian
~284 - Strong willed army leader
~Tough, limited personal freedoms, restored order & increased strength
~
Split Empire into East & West
-Each part had Augustus-Sr position and Caesar-Jr position
-Took control of E half-wealthier
~Doubled size of the army
~Raised taxes
~Set prices for certain goods
~Claimed divine ancestry
~Started largest persecution of the church
~Retired in 305
~Civil war broke out

Pro
Con
Pro
Con
Fine Arts
~
Sculpture
-
Realism over idealism
-Used stone, used often for education
-Bas-relief/low relief - images come out from a flat background
~Mosaic
-Bright colors, pieces of stone, glass or tile, most villas had at least one
~Painting
-Excelled at this
-Wealthy Romans had bright frescoes in their homes, few survive, best examples are from Pompeii
Language
~Literature
-Inspired by Greeks in literature by used their own ideas & themes
-Virgil-The Aenied- written to praise Rome, and Roman virtues
-Ovid-Amores-lighter, witty, for enjoyment
-History-Tacitus-presented facts accurately-good & bad things about Rome, concerned with lack of morality
~
Latin- language in the west, official language of the Roman Catholic Church into 20th cent.
-adapted into the Romance languages
-half English words have Latin roots

Architecture
~Architecture built for practicality
~
Aqueducts
-Arch, dome, concrete used for Colosseum
-Designed to bring water into cities & towns
-Raised up on arches as necessary
~
Colosseum
-Built by Emperor Vespasian, completed by sons Titus & Domitian, opened in AD 80
-
All citizens came to events
-Held 45,000-50,000 ppl, made out of stone & concrete, 157 ft high, 620 ft long, arena-287 ft long, 180 ft wide
-Velarium-retractable canvas awning to shield from sun & rain
~
Roads
-
Vast network of roads made from stone, concrete & sand, connecting Rome to all parts of the empire
-Many lasted in the Middle ages, some still exist & are used


Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
Republican Gov't of Rome & US
p 157
~Create a chart of two governments in your notes in groups of 2.
~Twelve Tables
-First Roman law code created about 450 BC
-Displayed in Roman forum
-Legal procedure, civil rights, property rights, basis for future Roman civil law
~300 BC polit. power - Senate
-Patricians & wealthy plebians
First Bible reference of Rome-Daniel 2:31-45
Punic Wars cont'd
~Hannibal
-Hatred towards Rome
-Started 2nd Punic War
-Marched across Pyrenees & Alps into central Italy
-Major loss of troops and elephants
-Victorious against Scipio
-Final defeat in 202 BC in Carthage
-Committed suicide
Romans were defeated by the Gauls, but Camillus helped the Romans regain power
Reforms
Change in Military Order
~Loyalty shifted from Republic to individual generals
~Power used to recruit soldiers to fight in exchange for pay & land
~Military generals had enough power to take over by force
~Roman citizenship expanded
~Expanded senate
-Added allies from Italy and other regions
~Created jobs for the poor
-Public building projects
~Started colonies for people to own property
~Increased pay for soldiers
Caesar Augustus cont'd
~Reinstituted the Republic - secretly keeping real power for himself
~27 BC self-titled Augustus "exalted one", first emperor of Rome
~Rule brought morale back to Rome
-Pax Romana-two centuries of peace & prosperity
~Reforms, military victories, Roman literature, art, religion encouraged
~Had military support and popularity among people
~Senate made him a god
Luke 2:1
Pax Romana
~Peace of Rome
~Large trading network across the empire including China & India
~Bad v Good Emperors
-Caligula-bloodthirsty & unstable
-Nero-drained Roman treasury
-Domitian-dictator, executed many

-Nerva-started another golden age, start of peaceful succession
-Trajan-victories over Dacia & Parthia
-Hadrian-continued establishing internal stability
-Antoninus Pius-peace & prosperity
-Marcus Aurelius-defeated invaders from Parthia, Armenia & Germanic tribes from the north
Culture of Pax Romana
~Most people lived and worked in the country
~Diverse cities
~Major class differences
-Wealthy-elaborate villas
-Poor-wooden tenement buildings
~Slaves & captivity
-More slaves than previous civilizations
-Conquered people
~gods & goddesses
-Spirits in everything
-Gov't & religion connected
~Entertainment-free games, races, battles, gladiatorial games
Gladiator Games
~Early in games- slaves, conquered people, prisoners
-Later volunteers
~Often fought to the death
~Varied purposes
-Wealth, commemoration, entertain and distract populace
~Differing weapons & armor
~Wild animals

Birth of Christ-6 BC, Baptized around 26 AD, Chooses 12 disciples-28 AD, Triumphal Entry-Sunday, 30 AD , Crucifixion & death-Friday, 30 AD, Resurrection- Sunday, 30 AD
Jesus' Trial
~Pilate in Jerusalem during Passover to keep peace
-Head judge
~Person without defense - charged as guilty
~Judged in Praetorium-military HQ, general's tent
~Pilate didn't believe Jesus was guilty
~Crowds determined guilt
~Roman methods of death
-Crucifixion
-Scourging
-Gladiatorial events
Constantine
~AD 312 Fought for leadership of Rome and prayed for help from God
~
Ended persecution of Christians in 313
-Edict of Milan-approved religion of the empire
~
380 Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the empire
~Capital of Roman empire moved to Constantinople
~Fathers and early teachers of the church defined the doctrines of Christianity
-Augustine-taught necessity of the grace of God
-The City of God-God's heavenly kingdom will not be destroyed
Politics & Military
Constantine
Invasion by Germania
Attila the Hun
~Commanders gained power
~
Mercenaries recruited by government
-Foreign soldiers paid to fight - lower pay than Romans
-No loyalty to Rome
~Citizens lost loyalty to empire
~Rome lasted 200 more yrs
~Emperors came in with reforms and divided the empire in 2 parts
~Took west in 312 and east in 324
~Capital - Constantinople in 330
-Good for trade, defense, crossroads between east & west
-Protected - high walls
-Buildings modeled after Roman architecture
~Center of power shifted to E
~Empire divided after his death
~AD 370-Mongols - central Asia, moved to Germanic lands, people fled
~Considered barbarians in Roman land
-Gaul, Spain & N Africa
~AD 410- Germans overran Rome - plundered for 3 days
~Huns united in AD 444 under Attila
~100,000 soldiers terrorized both sides of the empire
~
Attacked & plundered east then headed west
-Attacked Rome - 452-disease & famine kept them from conquering
-Decline of western half of the empire
~Attila died - Huns stopped attacking Rome
~Germanic invasions continued

~Last emperor-Romulus Augustulus pushed out by Germans and the West fell
~Eastern half-Byzantine Empire
-Survived & flourished
-Roman heritage remained for 1000 yrs
~Emperors ruled from Constantinople
~Empire lasted until 1453 when Ottoman Turks took over
Law
~Strengthen rights of citizens
-Should be fair & apply equally to all people
-Judges started recognizing standards of justice
~Important principles
-All persons had the right to equal treatment under the law
-A person was considered innocent until proven guilty
-The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused
-A person should be punished only for actions, not thoughts
-Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside
~
Impacted European law & US law-western world
~Nobles & senators concerned - thought he was a tyrant
~Senators led by Marcus Brutus & Gaius Cassius planned his assassination
~Stabbed to death on March 15th 44 BC
Death
"The savage beasts have their dens but the men who bear arms and expose their lives for the safety of their country, enjoy nothing more in it but the air and light wander from place to place with their wives & children" -Tiberius Gracchus
Full transcript