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Ch 6 Ancient Rome & Early Christianity
Transcript of Ch 6 Ancient Rome & Early Christianity
Geography of Rome
Why is it important that we study Ancient Rome?
Geography of Rome cont'd
1. How would you expand the empire of Rome?
Fall of Rome
1. What would your plan be to fix the economy of Rome?
1. Have you ever needed to be a leader?
2. What challenges did you face?
3. How did others respond to you as leader?
Rise and Spread of Christianity
1. Who is Jesus to you?
Describe the idea you think is best
Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization
~Greco-Roman culture-mix of Greek, Hellenistic & Roman culture-considered classical civilization
~Focused on ideals of strength, performance & solidarity
~753 BC-Founded by Romulus
~Latins, Greeks & Etruscans battled for Rome
-Latins took Rome
-Greeks set up trading colonies
-Etruscans- metalworkers & engineers in N Italy
~Established 509 BC
~Ruled by two Consuls
-Commanders of army
~Patricians-wealthy landowning families who descended from original senators
~Plebians-common people, farmers, merchants, majority of pop.
~Tribunes-could initiate/veto legislation, protected rights of plebians
~Dominated for over 1000 years
~Service to Rome valued, militarily focused
~Disciplined, tough, powerful, focused, brutal, organized
-Legions-military units, about 5000 infantry
~Expanded the empire
~Attacked by the Gauls around 390 BC, destroyed Rome
~Regained power under Camillus-military hero
Collapse of the Republic
~Wealthy - large estates, hired slaves
~Smaller farmers struggled, many former soldiers
-Sold farms to landowners-became homeless
-Stayed and became seasonal migrant workers
-Went to cities for work, urban poor
~Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus proposed reforms to help the poor
-limited size of estates
-gave land to poor
~Caesar, Crassus & Pompey ruled as a triumvirate-group of 3 rulers
~Strong leader with excellent military strategy
~Led army across the Rubicon River (Italy), marched across Rome
~Defeated Pompey's armies in Greece, Asia, Spain & Egypt
~Returned to Rome in 46 BC with the support of the army & populace
~Named dictator for life in 44 BC
~Octavian-great nephew of Caesar & adopted heir
~He & Mark Antony took down Brutus & Cassius
~Formed Second Triumvirate - divided power of Rome
-Mark Antony-eastern provinces
~Triumvirate dissolved - tensions grew between rulers
~Octavian beat Antony & Cleopatra in Egypt at the Battle of Actium
-Son of God who will reign forever in His kingdom
-Born in Bethlehem in a manger, visited by shepherds
-Jesus baptism, identified Himself with man, although He was sinless.
-An example to followers and start of His ministry
~Matt 4:1-11, Luke 4:1-13 - Jesus tempted
-No use of supernatural powers for own needs, not used to win over large crowds, no compromise with Satan
~Luke 8:40-56- Miracles of Healing
-Faith healed her
~Luke 15:1-32- Parable of lost sheep, coin & prodigal son
-Value and joy of true repentance
~Matt 26:36-46- Garden of Gethsemane
-Christ asked for any other way and obeyed God's plan
~Matt 27:11-66- Trial and death
-Pontius Pilate-Roman governor in Jerusalem
~Matt 28: 1-15 Resurrection
-The empty tomb and a risen Lord
~Acts 7:58, 8:1-3- Intro
Sanhedrin, persecuted Christians
Blinded and fasted & prayed for 3 days, healed and accepted Christ
~9:20-31 Start of ministry
~13:1-43 First Missionary journey with Barnabas
~27:1-28:31 Paul's journey to Rome
Romans written to Roman church
-Presents the gospel and God's plan for redemption of Jew & Gentile & relationship between them
~3:21-31, 5:1-21, 6:1-23, 8:26-39, 12:1-21
Jewish Diaspora-rebelled against Rome and spread across the land
~People were drawn to the Christians of early church - no exclusions for salvation
Emperor Nero-blamed Christians for fire that destroyed most of Rome
-Tortured, arrested Christians, convicted for having "anti-social beliefs"
-Covered in wild animal skins, torn to death by dogs, crucified, set on fire
Spread of Power
~Pattern of expansion
-Land given to poor Roman citizens
-More land=more $ for weapons & armor=larger army=more land
~Rights of conquered people
-Neighboring Latins-full citizenship
-Farther territories-full citizenship except the vote
-Allies (all others)-supplied troops to Rome & no alliances with other states allowed
~Built roads - move army quickly
~Sea and land routes for trade
~Rome - dominant power in Italy
~Carthage, powerful N African city-state, leading maritime power in the world
-1st-264 BC: Rome defeated Carthage, gained control of Sicily & Corsica, empire gained naval & land power
-2nd-202 BC: Hannibal invaded Italy, defeated by Rome-gained control of W Mediterranean & most of Spain
-3rd-146 BC: Romans took & destroyed Carthage, sold inhabitants into slavery, Carthage - Roman province.
-Hostile tribes outside the empire
-Pirates - disrupted trade
-Reached limit of expansion-lack of gold & silver
~Inflation-drastic drop in the value of money and rise in prices
-Coins continually made out of less silver
~Agriculture was failing
-Harvests in Italy and western Europe declined
-Overworked soil-shortage of food, spread of disease
~284 - Strong willed army leader
~Tough, limited personal freedoms, restored order & increased strength
Split Empire into East & West
-Each part had Augustus-Sr position and Caesar-Jr position
-Took control of E half-wealthier
~Doubled size of the army
~Set prices for certain goods
~Claimed divine ancestry
~Started largest persecution of the church
~Retired in 305
~Civil war broke out
Realism over idealism
-Used stone, used often for education
-Bas-relief/low relief - images come out from a flat background
-Bright colors, pieces of stone, glass or tile, most villas had at least one
-Excelled at this
-Wealthy Romans had bright frescoes in their homes, few survive, best examples are from Pompeii
-Inspired by Greeks in literature by used their own ideas & themes
-Virgil-The Aenied- written to praise Rome, and Roman virtues
-Ovid-Amores-lighter, witty, for enjoyment
-History-Tacitus-presented facts accurately-good & bad things about Rome, concerned with lack of morality
Latin- language in the west, official language of the Roman Catholic Church into 20th cent.
-Adapted into the Romance languages
-Half of the existing English words have Latin roots
~Architecture built for practicality
-Arch, dome, concrete used for Colosseum
-Designed to bring water into cities & towns
-Raised up on arches as necessary
-Built by Emperor Vespasian, completed by sons Titus & Domitian, opened in AD 80
All citizens came to events
-Held 45,000-50,000 ppl, made out of stone & concrete, 157 ft high, 620 ft long, arena-287 ft long, 180 ft wide
-Velarium-retractable canvas awning to shield from sun & rain
Vast network of roads made from stone, concrete & sand, connecting Rome to all parts of the empire
-Many lasted in the Middle ages, some still exist & are used
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
Republican Gov't of Rome & US
~Create a chart of two governments in your notes.
-First Roman law code created about 450 BC
-Displayed in Roman forum
-Legal procedure, civil rights, property rights, basis for future Roman civil law
~300 BC polit. power - Senate
-Patricians & wealthy plebians
Punic Wars cont'd
-Hatred towards Rome
-Started 2nd Punic War
-Marched across Pyrenees & Alps into central Italy
-Major loss of troops and elephants
-Victorious against Scipio
-Final defeat in 202 BC in Carthage
Change in Military Order
~Loyalty shifted from Republic to individual generals
~Power used to recruit soldiers to fight in exchange for pay & land
~Military generals had enough power to take over by force
~Roman citizenship expanded
-Added allies from Italy and other regions
~Created jobs for the poor
-Public building projects
~Started colonies for people to own property
~Increased pay for soldiers
Caesar Augustus cont'd
~Reinstituted the Republic - secretly keeping real power for himself
~27 BC self-titled Augustus "exalted one", first emperor of Rome
~Rule brought morale back to Rome
-Pax Romana-two centuries of peace & prosperity
~Reforms, military victories, Roman literature, art, religion encouraged
~Had military support and popularity among people
~Senate made him a god
~Peace of Rome
~Large trading network across the empire including China & India
~Bad v Good Emperors
-Caligula-bloodthirsty & unstable
-Nero-drained Roman treasury
-Domitian-dictator, executed many
-Nerva-started another golden age, start of peaceful succession
-Trajan-victories over Dacia & Parthia
-Hadrian-continued establishing internal stability
-Antoninus Pius-peace & prosperity
-Marcus Aurelius-defeated invaders from Parthia, Armenia & Germanic tribes from the north
Culture of Pax Romana
~Most people lived and worked in the country
~Major class differences
-Poor-wooden tenement buildings
~Slaves & captivity
-More slaves than previous civilizations
~gods & goddesses
-Spirits in everything
-Gov't & religion connected
~Entertainment-free games, races, battles, gladiatorial games
~Early in games- slaves, conquered people, prisoners
~Often fought to the death
-Show wealth, commemorate event, entertain and distract populace
~Differing weapons & armor
Birth of Christ-6 BC, Baptized around 26 AD, Chooses 12 disciples-28 AD, Triumphal Entry-Sunday, 30 AD , Crucifixion & death-Friday, 30 AD, Resurrection- Sunday, 30 AD
~Pilate in Jerusalem during Passover to keep peace
~Person without defense - charged as guilty
~Judged in Praetorium-military HQ, general's tent
~Pilate didn't believe Jesus was guilty
~Crowds determined guilt
~Roman methods of death
~AD 312 Fought for leadership of Rome and prayed for help from God
Ended persecution of Christians in 313
-Edict of Milan-approved religion of the empire
380 Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the empire
~Capital of Roman empire moved to Constantinople
~Fathers and early teachers of the church defined the doctrines of Christianity
-Augustine-taught necessity of the grace of God
-The City of God-God's heavenly kingdom will not be destroyed
Politics & Military
Invasion by Germania
Attila the Hun
~Commanders gained power
Mercenaries recruited by government
-Foreign soldiers paid to fight - lower pay than Romans
-No loyalty to Rome
~Citizens lost loyalty to empire
~Rome lasted 200 more yrs
~Emperors came in with reforms and divided the empire in 2 parts
~Took west in 312 and east in 324
~Capital - Constantinople in 330
-Good for trade, defense, crossroads between east & west
-Protected - high walls
-Buildings modeled after Roman architecture
~Center of power shifted to E
~Empire divided after his death
~AD 370-Mongols - central Asia, moved to Germanic lands, people fled
~Considered barbarians in Roman land
-Gaul, Spain & N Africa
~AD 410- Germans overran Rome - plundered for 3 days
~Huns united in AD 444 under Attila
~100,000 soldiers terrorized both sides of the empire
Attacked & plundered east then headed west
-Attacked Rome - 452-disease & famine kept them from conquering
-Decline of western half of the empire
~Attila died - Huns stopped attacking Rome
~Germanic invasions continued
~Last emperor-Romulus Augustulus pushed out by Germans and the West fell
~Eastern half-Byzantine Empire
-Survived & flourished
-Roman heritage remained for 1000 yrs
~Emperors ruled from Constantinople
~Empire lasted until 1453 when Ottoman Turks took over
~Strengthen rights of citizens
-Should be fair & apply equally to all people
-Judges started recognizing standards of justice
-All persons had the right to equal treatment under the law
-A person was considered innocent until proven guilty
-The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused
-A person should be punished only for actions, not thoughts
-Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside
Impacted European law & US law-western world
~Nobles & senators concerned - thought he was a tyrant
~Senators led by Marcus Brutus & Gaius Cassius planned his assassination
~Stabbed to death on March 15th 44 BC
"The savage beasts have their dens but the men who bear arms and expose their lives for the safety of their country, enjoy nothing more in it but the air and light wander from place to place with their wives & children" -Tiberius Gracchus
~Answer the following questions on a processing page to be handed in:
1. What countries were the Northern, Eastern, Western and Southern boundaries of the Roman empire?
2. What pieces of armor & weaponry did they carry?
3. What was the punishment that could be carried out at any time to a soldier?
4. What do you believe was the value of having such strict rules and regulations for the Roman soldiers?
~The King's Dream
31 “You, O king, were looking and behold, there was a single great statue; that statue, which was large and [a]of extraordinary splendor, was standing in front of you, and its appearance was awesome. 32 The head of that statue was made of fine gold, its breast and its arms of silver, its belly and its thighs of bronze, 33 its legs of iron, its feet partly of iron and partly of clay. 34 You [b]continued looking until a stone was cut out without hands, and it struck the statue on its feet of iron and clay and crushed them. 35 Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver and the gold were crushed [c]all at the same time and became like chaff from the summer threshing floors; and the wind carried them away so that not a trace of them was found. But the stone that struck the statue became a great mountain and filled the whole earth.
~The Interpretation-Babylon the First Kingdom
36 “This was the dream; now we will tell its interpretation before the king. 37 You, O king, are the king of kings, to whom the God of heaven has given the [d]kingdom, the power, the strength and the glory; 38 and wherever the sons of men dwell, or the beasts of the field, or the birds of the sky, He has given them into your hand and has caused you to rule over them all. You are the head of gold.
39 After you there will arise another kingdom inferior to you, then another third kingdom of bronze, which will rule over all the earth.
40 Then there will be a fourth kingdom as strong as iron; inasmuch as iron crushes and shatters all things, so, like iron that breaks in pieces, it will crush and break all these in pieces. 41 In that you saw the feet and toes, partly of potter’s clay and partly of iron, it will be a divided kingdom; but it will have in it the toughness of iron, inasmuch as you saw the iron mixed with [e]common clay. 42 As the toes of the feet were partly of iron and partly of pottery, so some of the kingdom will be strong and part of it will be brittle. 43 And in that you saw the iron mixed with [f]common clay, they will combine with one another [g]in the seed of men; but they will not adhere to one another, even as iron does not combine with pottery.
Decline of Rome
1. What is the significance of the geographical location of Rome?
2. What is learned about Rome in this passage?
2. Do you believe the success of Rome resulted more from their military or government?
Do you believe the Pattern of Expansion will be successful for long-term growth of Rome?
4. Would you want to re-name the time period referred to as Pax Romana? Why or why not?
~Has your perception of Rome changed in any way? If so, how has it changed?
~Regardless of whether your opinion has or hasn't changed, would have wanted to live in Rome at that time? Why or why not
2. How did the Roman government interact with Christians? Explain.
~Do you believe there should be a relationship between a country and religions within that country? Why or why not?
2. Do you think the decline of Rome could have been delayed?
a. If you were in charge how would you have delayed the decline?
What do you believe most led to the Decline of Rome?
Preserved fresco from Pompeii
1. Divide processing page into 4 sections
2. Label each section with one of the following: Fine Arts, Language, Architecture, Law
3. List characteristics/examples of these that you see in America today.
Sections of Roman Road
Arch of Constantine
Why do you believe there are similarities between the culture of Greco-Roman civilization and American civilization?