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# Just about everything you use daily works on a series or par

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## Dhananjay Dewan

on 18 February 2014

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#### Transcript of Just about everything you use daily works on a series or par

NOW WE HAVE SOME EXAMPLE
RC CIRCUITS
Just about everything you use daily works on a series or parallel circuit. The one you're probably most familiar with and use immediately every day is a light. The most common everyday series circuits are the electrical circuits found in homes and vehicles, with the difference being the type of voltage used in each one. Homes use AC (Alternating Current) Voltage, while vehicles use DC (Direct Current)
Series/Parallel Combination of circuit element in daily life
Where are Series Used
In resistive circuits,when you need the same current in the whole circuit,you use series circuit because in series circuit current remains the same.
Series circuits are used in areas where the operation of the circuit is required to be linear.
Where are Parallel Used
Parallel circuits are used in wiring almost everything in buildings. You use them to turn on the lights in a room, Use a blow dryer or to plug anything into an outlet.
A parallel circuit is used when the current through several components needs to be independent of each other.
Water Heaters
Water heaters use a series circuit. Power enters through the thermostat, which is a temperature control switch. When the water reaches the correct temperature, the thermostat will cut off the current to the heating element, leaving the current with no other paths to follow.
Freezers and Refrigerators
Freezers and refrigerators both use series circuits. The elements in this circuit are the compressor and the temperature control switch. If the temperature inside the freezer or refrigerator gets too hot, the temperature control switch will turn the compressor on until the temperature drops. Once the correct temperature is reached, the switch will then turn the compressor off again.
LED
Light emitting diodes (LEDs), electronic components that emit light when a voltage is applied, are often arranged in parallel and in series. One advantage of arranging LEDs in a parallel is that when one LED light goes out, the rest will stay lit. In a series LED arrangement, when one light goes out, so will all the rest. Series LED arrangements however require less electrical current to operate than parallel arrangements
Battery Current
The total available battery current is increased when batteries are placed in parallel. The total amount of electrical current from batteries in parallel, in terms of ampere-hours, is equal to the sum of the ampere-hour rating of each battery placed in parallel. When connecting batteries in parallel, only use batteries that have the same voltage. Also realize that the voltage across batteries connected in parallel will just be the battery voltage. They won't sum as in a series connection.
Lamps
Lamps also operate on a series circuit. Power flows from the receptacle to the switch, through the light bulb and back to the receptacle. When the switch is turned on, current will flow to the light bulb. The current can only follow one path.
Well Water Pump
A well water pump's series circuit contains three elements. The circuit breaker in the main power panel is the first element. The pressure switch is connected between the circuit breaker and the water pump motor. When water pressure drops, the pressure switch will close and send current to the motor. This is the only path the current can follow.
SERIES AND PARALLEL (BOTH) COMBINED APPLICATION
WHEATSTONE BRIDGE
A Wheatstone bridge is an electrical circuit used to measure an unknown electrical resistance by balancing two legs of a bridge circuit, one leg of which includes the unknown component. Its operation is similar to the original potentiometer.It is suitable for measuring the resistance change in a strain gage and many more.
RC CIRCUITS
A resistor–capacitor circuit (RC circuit), or RC filter or RC network, is an electric circuit composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage orcurrent source. A first order RC circuit is composed of one resistor and one capacitor and is the simplest type of RC circuit.
RC circuits can be used to filter a signal by blocking certain frequencies and passing others. The two most common RC filters are the high-pass filters andlow-pass filters; band-pass filters and band-stop filters usually require RLC filters, though crude ones can be made with RC filters.

A resistor–inductor circuit (RL circuit), or RL filter or RL network, is one of the simplest analogue infinite impulse response electronic filters. It consists of a resistor and an inductor, either
in series or in parallel, driven by a voltage source.
RL
Working

The fundamental passive linear circuit elements are the resistor (R), capacitor (C) and inductor (L). These circuit elements can be combined to form an electrical circuit in four distinct ways: the RC circuit, the RL circuit, the LC circuit and the RLC circuit with the abbreviations indicating which components are used. These circuits exhibit important types of behaviour that are fundamental to analogue electronics. In particular, they are able to act as passive filters.

Application
Time Switch
RC's are often used as a timer of some sort. Because the capacitor charges to the source voltage, and then discharges at a constant and specific rate, it can be used as a time switch.
A good example is the intermittent wipers in your car, or the seek and scan funtion on a radio.
Then can also be used to "recitfy" a signal with some finite frequency into a smoother, constant, DC signal. They are often employed like this to "clean up" dirty or noisy signals, especially signals that are transmitted wirelessly. Cordless phones, remote controls, Stereo speakers and Amplifiers, etc.
LOW PASS FILTER
A low-pass filter is a filter that passes low-frequency signals and attenuates (reduces the amplitude of) signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. The actual amount of attenuation for each frequency varies depending on specific filter design. It is sometimes called a high-cut filter, or treble cut filter in audio applications. A low-pass filter is the opposite of a high-pass filter. A band-pass filter is a combination of a low-pass and a high-pass.
High Pass Filter
A high-pass filter (HPF) is an electronic filter that passes high-frequency signals but attenuates (reduces the amplitude of) signals with frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency. A high-pass filter is usually modeled as a linear time-invariant system. It is sometimes called a low-cut filter or bass-cut filter.[1] High-pass filters have many uses, such as blocking DC from circuitry sensitive to non-zero average voltages or RF devices. They can also be used in conjunction with a low-pass filter to make a bandpass filter.
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