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States Of Matter

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benjamin brutus

on 21 October 2013

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Transcript of States Of Matter

States Of Matter

Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase to liquid phase, and is the reverse of vaporization. It can also be defined as the change in state of water vapor to water/any liquid when it contact with any surface. When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly,the change is called deposition. Condensation is initiated by the formation of atomic/molecular clusters of that species within it's gaseous volume-like rain drop or snowflake formation within clouds-or at the contact between such gaseous phase and a liquid or solid surface. Condensation commonly occurs when a vapor is cooled and/or compressed to it's saturation limit when the molecular density in the gas phase reaches it's maximal threshold.
Liquid is one of the three primary states of matter, with others being solid and gas. A liquid is a fluid. Unlike a solid, the molecules in a liquid have a much greater freedom to move. The forces that bind the molecules together in a solid are only temporary in a liquid, allowing a liquid to flow while a solid remains rigid. A liquid, like a gas, displays the properties of a fluid. A liquid can flow, assume the shape of a container, and, if placed in sealed container, will distribute applied pressure evenly to every surface in the container.
A solid is a sample of matter that retains it's shape and density when not confined. The atoms or molecules of matter in the solid state are generally compressed as tightly as the repulsive forces among them will allow. Some solids, called crystalline solids, tends to fracture along defined surfaces that have a characteristic shape depending on the arrangement of, and the forces among, the atoms or molecules in the sample. Other solids, known as amorphous solids, lack any apparent crystalline structure.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter(the others being solid, liquid, and plasma). A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms(e.g. a noble gas or atomic gas like neon), elemental molecules made from one type of atom(e.g. oxygen), or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms (e.g. carbon dioxide). A gas mixture would contain a variety of pure gases much like the air. What distinguishes a gas from liquids and solids is the vast separation of the individual gas particles. This separation usually makes a colorless gas invisible to the human observer.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter(the others being liquid, gas, and plasma). It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume. Unlike a liquid, a solid object does not flow to take on the shape of it's container, nor does it expand to fill the entire volume available to it like a gas does. The atoms in a solid are tight to each other like glue but are vibrating.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid to a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the evaporating substance. The other type of vaporization is boiling, which, instead, occurs within the entire mass of the liquid and can also take place when the vapor phase is saturated, such as when steam is produced in a boiler. Evaporation that occurs directly from the solid phase below the melting point, as commonly observed with ice at or below freezing or moth crystals is called, sublimation.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid. When ice melts the particles in that ice cube is spreading apart and turning into a liquid. An object that has melted completely is molten. Substances in the molten state generally have reduced viscosity with elevated temperature; an exception to this maxim is the element sulfur, whose viscosity increases to a point due to polymerization and then decreases with higher temperatures in it's molten state.
Freezing or solidification is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when it's temperature is lowered below it's freezing point. When you put water in a freezer it will turn into ice(a solid). For most substances, the melting and freezing points are the same temperature; however, certain substances posses differing solid-liquid transition temperature. For example, agar displays a hysteresis in it's melting and freezing temperature. Most liquids freeze by crystallization, formation of crystalline solid from the uniform liquid.
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