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Transcript of Dissertation Defense
-Alexander Graham Bell Assessing a need for a "One-Stop Shop"
Disaster Management Mobile Application
by Identifying the Perceptions and Utilization of
Current Disaster Preparedness Resources
in the Southern Region of the United States 03.22.13 Regina B. Leingang
Louisiana State University Dissertation Defense Results Objective One
Age – largest group of respondents between 18 – 21
range from 16 – 91 years of age
Gender – majority female
Ethnicity – 75% Caucasian
Highest level of education completed – 34% some college
Marital Status – majority single/never married – 43%
Children – 75% of respondents do not have children
Home ownership – 45% did not own their own home Results Instrument consisted of 63 items total
About 10 – 15 minutes to complete
Piloted – changes incorporated
Most questions nominal dichotomous – “yes” or “no” format
Skip-logic used to move respondents through survey
Survey Frame question built in
Three factors – Knowledge, Usage, Technology = Preparedness Total
Reliable instrument – internal consistency
used special case of Cronbach’s Alpha – Kuder-Richardson 20 reliability index
Knowledge and Technology – above .80
Usage – above .70 Quantitative Bechtel, R., & Churchman, A. (2003). Handbook of environmental psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated.
Cherniack, E., Sandals, L., Brooks, L., & Mintzer, M. (2008). Pilot trial of a survey instrument to establish the hurricane preparedness of and medical impact on a vulnerable population. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 23(3), 240–247.
Drabek, T., & Stephenson, J. (1971). When disaster strikes. Journal of applied social psychology. 1(2), 187-203.
Koontz, H. (1980). The management theory jungle revisited.The Academy of Management Review, 5(2), 175-187. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/257427
Kreps, G. (1984). Sociological inquiry and disaster research. Annual Review of Sociology, 10(1), 309-330.
Light, P. (2005). Lessons learned: Hurricane Katrina and Wilma hit U.S. gulf coastal states, Boston Globe.
Marcus, L., Dorn, M., & Henderson, J. (2006). Meta-leadership and national emergency preparedness: A model to build government connectivity. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense strategy, practice, and science, 4(2), 128-134.
Mathbor, G. (2007). Enhancement of community preparedness for natural disasters: The role of social work in building social capital for sustainable disaster relief and management .International Social Work, 50(3), 357-369. References Respondents would download a mobile application if it was available
Features to integrate into current ARC Hurricane Mobile Application
Outreach – information disseminated at Orientation with QR code and brochure to hand out
Contact other A & M colleges – set up a refugee camp for animals
Conduct survey at LSU again Future Implications/Research Objective Three
Preparedness Total Score and demographics
Not normally distributed
Due to the violation of the assumption of homogeneity, equality of variances, a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted
Age - significant difference (p<.0001) in regards to age
on preparedness total scores, x2(7, N = 1,188) = 68.19 Results Objective Two
Preparedness Total Score – sub scale scores of Knowledge, Usage, and Technology – maximum score of 122 Results Questions added after first interview
Findings Qualitative Researcher developed instrument
Looked at other instruments
Rincon, Linares, & Greenberg, 2001 – 31 item survey
- Majority questions “yes” or “no” format
- Found that having experienced a major hurricane does not enhance hurricane
- Conducted several years after landfall
Cherniack, Sandals, Brooks & Mintzer, 2008 – 25 item written questionnaire
- Developed based on the ARC guidelines
- Majority questions “yes” or “no” format
- Convenience sample – geriatric participants
- Found no correlation between subjects’ age, race, income, education, and
prior experience with hurricanes and their possession of suggested disaster supplies
- Had to remember events one-two years ago
- Ambulatory veterans one clinic in hurricane-vulnerable area Quantitative Governor’s Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness Website
Get a game plan mobile application
Official LA Hurricane Survival Guide
United Way’s 211
511 Traveler Information System
Safe and well linking website
Shelter View website
Mobile applications Preparedness Resources Preparedness Theory
Movement toward preparedness
- need to be prepared
- can strike anywhere – Mathbor, 2007
Weakness in Gulf Coast areas – Light, 2005
- Danger recognized people seek safety; adaptive – Quarantelli, 1988
Connectivity – Marcus, Dorn, & Henderson, 2006
- More connected, the better prepared, quicker they can recover Literature Review Foundation of Emergency Management
Collaborative – Waugh & Streib, 2006
Traditional Management – Pine, 2007
Solid Management Processes – Koontz, 1980
Organizational/program assessment Literature Review Mileti, D., & Sorensen, J. (1990). Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment. Retrieved from http://emc.ed.ornl.gov/publications/PDF/CommunicationFinal.pdf
Peek, L., & Mileti, D. (2002). The history and future of disaster research. Handbook of environmental psychology, 13(1), 511-524.
Perry, R., Lindell, M., & Greene, M. (1981) Evacuation planning in emergency management. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Pine, J. (2007). The contributions of management theory and practice to emergency management. In McEntire, David (ed.) Disciplines, Disasters, and Emergency Management. Federal Emergency Management Agency: Emmitsburg, MD.
Rincon, E., Linares, M., & Greenberg, B. (2001). Effect of previous experience of a hurricane on preparedness for future hurricanes. American Journal of Emergency Management, 19(4), 276-279.
Smith, A. (2012). Pew internet and American life project: 46% of American adults are smartphone owners. Retrieved from http://pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2012/Smartphone ownership 2012.pdf
Waugh, W., & Streib, G. (2006). Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency management. Public Administration Review, 66(s1), 131-140.
Quarantelli, E. (1988). Disaster crisis management: A summary of research findings. Journal of Management Studies, 25(4), 373-385. References contd... Technology Themes Eight interviewees
How were they selected?
Follow up questions to the survey
Semi-structured interview Qualitative Instrument administered at 4 higher education institutions
University of Louisiana at Lafayette – UL
University of New Orleans – UNO
broadcast email sent to entire student, staff, and faculty
Southeastern Louisiana University – SELU
a random sample of 5,000 students
Louisiana State University – LSU
thrown out due to delivery issues Quantitative Mobile applications – first time they are available
Insight on perception and utilization Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States - SHELDUS
Assists researchers with identifying hazards and resiliency
Allows users to identify where and when losses occurred
Identify trends in hazard losses Significance Sequential Explanatory Mixed Method Method Pew Institute, 2012 Mobile usage Pew Institute, 2012 Mobile Savvy
1960 - 2009 Significance Usage Knowledge Themes Layered Approach
-Seek confirmation – act of seeking out further information known as warning confirmation. Drabek Mileti & Sorenson, 1990
-Supplement information from neighbors, friends, relatives – Kreps, 1984
-Confusion – Peek; Perry, Lindell & Greene, 1981
communicated over multiple channels – individuals understanding, belief, and response enhanced – Bechtel & Churchman, 2003 Knowledge Usage Technology