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Transcript of Equine Fundamentals
In Situ Equine GI tract
Anatomical positioning of GI tract
Bones of the hindfoot of the horse through evolutionary time
Evolution of the Horse
Przewalskii's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) Endangered (Genetically distinct from modern horse- 66 chromosomes)
Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi)
(46 chromosomes) Endangered
Plain's Zebra (Equus quagga)
Mountain Zebra (Equus zebra)
Quagga (Equus quagga quagga)
Tarpan (Equus ferus ferus) Extinct 1909
Likely progenitor for modern horses (64 chromosomes)
Onager (Equus hemionus) Endangered
Kiang (Equus kiang)
Feral Horses- Example American Mustang (Equus ferus)
Domestic horse (Equus caballus)
There are approximately 267 breeds of horses throughout the world. (64 chromosomes)
Draft Horse (AKA cold blood)
16-19+ hands & >1400 lbs
Warm blood (cross between cold and hot blood)
Variable height and weight
Hot blooded horse, 14-16 hands & 850-1400 lbs
Pony, <14.2 hands & <850 lbs
Mule, cross between donkey and horse
variable height and weight
Miniature Horse, 38 inches or less at the withers
Donkey, 7-15 hands & 180- 1060 lbs
Guttural Pouches, unique to Equines
Guttural pouch interior, note prominent arteries, veins and nerves
Skull of horse illustrating dentition and ocular anatomy
Forelimb anatomy, responsible for supporting 60-70 percent of a horses weight
Equines stand on just 1 toe (P3) per leg, which is unique. Hooves accommodate enormous pressures due to weight and activity. As a result 90 of all lameness is isolated to the hoof.
View of the bottom of the hoof. The hoof wall and sole are hard and protect the hoof from physical damage, and the frog provides cushioning against tremendous impact forces.
European cave paintings
from ~35,000 years ago Lascaux, France
Domestication is believed to have occurred
~3500 BCE (5,500 years ago) in Eastern Europe,
Russian Steppes, Eastern Asia
African Ass (Equinus asinus)
Progenitor to modern donkeys/burros
Equus hemionus kulan