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Equine Fundamentals

Introduction to horses lecture for my Equine 280 class, Globe University, Madison East. This lecture intoduces the history and evolution of the horse, delves into the anatomical characteristics that they share with dogs, cats, and us, as well as highlight
by

McLean Gunderson

on 3 April 2014

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Transcript of Equine Fundamentals

Equine Fundamentals
VT 280
Globe University,
Madison East

External Anatomy
Muscular System
Skeletal System
Circulatory System
Digestive System
In Situ Equine GI tract
Anatomical positioning of GI tract
Respiratory tract
Bones of the hindfoot of the horse through evolutionary time
Evolution of the Horse
Przewalskii's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) Endangered (Genetically distinct from modern horse- 66 chromosomes)
Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi)
(46 chromosomes) Endangered
Plain's Zebra (Equus quagga)
(44 chromosomes)
Mountain Zebra (Equus zebra)
(32chromosomes) Protected
Quagga (Equus quagga quagga)
Extinct 1883
Tarpan (Equus ferus ferus) Extinct 1909
Likely progenitor for modern horses (64 chromosomes)
Onager (Equus hemionus) Endangered
(56 chromosomes)
Kiang (Equus kiang)
(52 chromosomes)
Feral Horses- Example American Mustang (Equus ferus)
Domestic horse (Equus caballus)
There are approximately 267 breeds of horses throughout the world. (64 chromosomes)
Draft Horse (AKA cold blood)
16-19+ hands & >1400 lbs
Warm blood (cross between cold and hot blood)
Variable height and weight
Hot blooded horse, 14-16 hands & 850-1400 lbs
Pony, <14.2 hands & <850 lbs
Mule, cross between donkey and horse
variable height and weight
(63 chromosomes)
Miniature Horse, 38 inches or less at the withers
Donkey, 7-15 hands & 180- 1060 lbs
(62 chromosomes)
Guttural Pouches, unique to Equines
Guttural pouch interior, note prominent arteries, veins and nerves
Skull of horse illustrating dentition and ocular anatomy
Forelimb anatomy, responsible for supporting 60-70 percent of a horses weight
Equines stand on just 1 toe (P3) per leg, which is unique. Hooves accommodate enormous pressures due to weight and activity. As a result 90 of all lameness is isolated to the hoof.
View of the bottom of the hoof. The hoof wall and sole are hard and protect the hoof from physical damage, and the frog provides cushioning against tremendous impact forces.
European cave paintings
from ~35,000 years ago Lascaux, France

Domestication is believed to have occurred
~3500 BCE (5,500 years ago) in Eastern Europe,
Russian Steppes, Eastern Asia
African Ass (Equinus asinus)
Progenitor to modern donkeys/burros
(62 chromosomes)
Critically Endangered
Equus hemionus kulan
(54 chromosomes)
Full transcript