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Toe Touch Jump

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by

Elli Holliday

on 24 January 2014

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Transcript of Toe Touch Jump

Movement Analysis
Toe Touch Jump
A toe touch is a sport specific move generally performed in
dance, cheerleading and gymnastics.


When executing a toe touch the subject will
jump vertically with legs spread in a straddle position
parallel to the ground, knees will face anterior, toes will be pointed, and the subjects
arms will raise in a T-position.
Despite the name, however, the subject will not touch their toes but keep their back in an upright position to extend their hands beyond their toes.

This move is unique due to the necessary development of both
strength and flexibility
in the hamstrings, hip abductors, quadriceps, and gastrocnemius muscles.
Overview
A Short Video Demonstration
Dance, Cheerleading, Gymnastics
Variation in Sport
A toe touch primarily takes place in the
frontal plane.
However,during the preparatory phase the arms move in the
sagittal plane
before extending in the
frontal plane.
In the movement phase, legs are in second position and come forward in the
transverse plane
along with the
frontal plane.
The follow-through and recovery phase the legs and knee joints along with arms and elbow joints move in the
transverse plane
and
frontal plane.
Planes of Movement
Ballón:

The quality of lightness, ease in jumping.

Plié:
A bend of the knees while the torso is held upright. The action relies on varying degrees of hip and knee flexion, with ankle and MTP dorsiflexion, depending on whether the plié is demi- or grand.

Relevé:
A rise or spring onto the toes (demi- or full pointe) from plié.

Second position:
The legs are externally rotated and separated by the distance of one foot, in the frontal plane.
Dance Terminology
Preparatory Phase: Sagittal and Frontal Plane
Planes and Phases Overview
Dance: Performed in second position, back remains upright, arms extended beyond toes, hands flat.

Cheerleading: Legs extend behind arms, back remains straight but forward tilt in the transverse plane, hands in fists.

Gymnastics: Similar to cheerleading; stance and preparation to action phase varies.
Dance Toe Touch Jump
Sport Specific Vocabulary
Movement Phase: Transverse and Frontal Plane
Follow-Through/Recovery Phase: Transverse and Frontal Plane
Elly Holliday-Kaufmann
Supporting Muscles
and Synergists
Primary Muscles
Gastrocnemius
Quadriceps (vastus medialis, intermedius, lateralis, rectus femoris)
Hamstrings (semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris)
Gluteous Maximus
Muscles that provide height when executing a toe touch:
Hip Flexors (iliacus, psoas major, sartorius, rectus femoris, pectineus)
Abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external and internal obliques)
Erector spinae
Joints Involved in a Toe Touch
Shoulder

Elbow

Hip

Knee
Shoulder Movement
The glenohumeral joint and shoulder girdle
Movements: Bringing It Together
Phases, Joints, Muscles, and Actions
Phase:
Movement

Glenohumeral Joint Action:
Abduction

Agonists:
Supraspinatus, deltoid,upper pectoralis major

Antagonists:
Trapezius

Shoulder Girdle Action:
Upward Rotation

Agonists:
Serratus anterior, middle and lower trapezuis

Antagonists:
Serratus posterior,
Latissum dorsi
Elbow Movement
The Radioulnar Joint
Phase:
Preparatory

Radioulnar Joint Action:
Flexion

Agonists:
Brachialis, brachioradialis

Antagonists:
Tricepts brachii
Knee Movement
Phase:
Preparatory and Movement

Preparatory Phase Action:
Flexion

Agonists:
Bicep femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus

Antagonists:
Rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, vastus medalis

Movement Phase Action:
Extension

Agonists:
Rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, vastus medalis

Antagonists:
Bicep femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus
The knee joint
Hip Movement
The Acetabular Femoral Joint
Phase:
Movement

Action:
External rotation of femur

Agonists:
Iliacus, Psoas major and minor

Antagonists:
Gracilis, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus

Action:
Abduction of hip

Agonists:
Gluteus medius, Gluteus minimus, Quadriceps, External rotators, Tensor fasiae latae

Antagonists:
Adductors, Pectineus, Gracilis
A Better Understanding
of How to Execute a
Toe Touch

Phases of a Toe Touch:

Stance
Preparatory
Movement
Follow-through
Recovery

The Preparatory Phase
A toe touch is nothing without a good prep.
When executing a toe touch, the stance and preparatory phases are critical. These steps will provide balance as well as power when entering the movement phase.
The preparatory phase has several small movements involved. After obtaining a balanced, comfortable stance,
bring the hands up to the chest
through flexion on the elbow during this step it is common to rise up on
releve.
Extend
arms back down by the sides
of the body while taking a
deep plie.
This will provide the momentum for the following phase-- the movement phase.
The Movement Phase
The height and climax of the jump
This phase requires immense amounts of flexibility as well as strength for optimum performance. It is key to gain as much height as possible in the jump to allow the legs time to abduct into a straddling position.
In a deep plie from the preparatory phase,
excel the body vertically
(this requires great gastrocenmius strength) while
abducting the arms laterally away from the body
creating a T.
Abduct the legs away from the body
, doing a straddle position parallel to the ground. Keep the
toes pointed
.

It is important to try to make this move as tight and snappy as possible. It will create for a more awing climax. Contracting the core muscles will help aid in the snappiness of this movement.
Standing in a
upright position
, place
feet together
under the hips while holding
arms tightly along the sides
of the body; it is also important to
activate the core
while in this (and all) phases. There should be a slight depression in the shoulder girdle.
The Stance Phase
This is the first step when executing a toe touch. It is optimal for gaining balance, and an opportunity to engage target muscles for further exertion.
Gaining Balance and Getting Ready
The Follow-Through Phase
Learning how to land gracefully
In competition, the landing is one of the highest judged phase of a toe touch. It is key to demonstrate ballon in such a challenging skill. Judges will often deduct points when the follow-through phase isn't clean and properly executed.
Directly following the climax of the jump, when the legs are full extending in the straddle position, contract the legs together while adducting the arms linear back to the sides of the body. Landing in a bent knee position will provide balance; it is important to land properly with both feet touching, centered inferior to the hips. Remember to keep the head and chest upright while landing to quickly move into the recovery phase.
The Recovery Phase
Get ready to do it again
When participating in high levels of competition, toe touches are often perform in intervals of two or three. The recovery phase is what will provide stability to execute the following toe touch.
After the follow-through phase, make any minor corrections to bring appendages into the center of the body. Extending the knees, presume an upright position.
Muscles that provide hip abduction and extension of the legs:
Hip Flexors (iliacus, psoas major, sartorius, rectus femoris, pectineus)
Abdominal muscles (Rectus abdominis, Transverse abdominis, external and internal obliques)
Gluteus medius and Gluteus minimus
Supporting Muscles; support primary muscles in an toe touch:
Synergists; Muscles that provide support for joints:
Shoulder:
deltoid
pectoralis major
biceps brachii
coracobrachialis
Hip:
Deltoid supraspinatus
Pectoralis major
Latissimus dorsi
Teres major and Teres minor
Arm Muscles
Preparatory Phase
Flexion
Muscles of the Leg
Preparation Phase
Extension & Flexion
Abduction of Shoulder & Upward Rotation of Shoulder Girdle
Muscles of the Shoulder
Movement Phase
Muscles of the Hip
External Rotation of Femur & Abduction of the Hip
Movement Phase
There are many variations of a toe touch. It is a moved that is judged by ease, grace, strength, height, and flexibility. There is not a defined way for a toe touch to be performed, but from observation, these are the most common performance manners.
Bibliography
Toe Touch Techniques (2012); Kelly Fitzpatrick, http://www.active.com/cheerleading/Articles/Toe_touch_techniques

Science of Flexibility 3rd Edition pg. 196 (1952); Michael J. Alter

Anatomy of Muscles Used to Do a Toe Touch in Cheerleading (2011); Jami Kastner http://www.livestrong.com/article/540244-anatomy-of-muscles-used-to-do-a-toe-touch-in-cheerleading/#ixzz2EFQCzzHT

http://www.physical-solutions.co.uk/articles/Understanding%20Planes%20and%20Axes%20of%20Movement.pdf
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