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Transcript of Genetics
punnet square: a tool that geneticist uses to determine the possible trait outcomes, possible combos of genes for a specific trait
The "Father" of Genetics
The real first father of genetics was Gregor Mendel. Gregor was the man that made the two most important discoveries in the world of genes.
Comparing genotype and phenotype
What is Genetics
tics is the study of how certain trait are passed down from
ration, parent to offspring, or heredity
A strand of DNA contains genetics
A set of instructions, a Manuel on what genes to place
total genetic makeup
all of the genes that come together
traits you can see
personality traits (characteristics)
ex.: height, eye color, hair color, etc.
Genes are inherited in pairs
There are recessive and dominant genes
both have to do with traits
studies of genetics
both make up trait but genotype plans them out while phenotype is the actual trait
Pea Plant Experiment
Why it Matters
made laws or principles for heredity, the Law of Dominance, the Law of Segregation, and the Law of Independent Assortment.
:Law of Segregation
Two copies of each trait goes into the offspring, one from each parent
:Law of Dominance
That if there is a recessive trait and dominate trait, the dominate trail will be expressed but the recessive trait will still be in the genes
:Law if Independent Assortment
Each parent has 2 genes that have an equally chance of going into the offspring, not just the dominate one.
strand of DNA
Gregor Mendels laws
a chromosome is a part of a cell that carries genes
they exist in pairs of two
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
sex cells, gametes, contain half the number of chromosomes
when the egg is fertilized it the original number of chromosomes is restored
dominant and recessive traits
Gregor also had a law that states that there are dominant and recessive alleles
for example tall could be a dominant allele so you would give it a capital letter
short would be
Gregor Johann Mendel was his full name
He was born on on July 22, 1822 to Anton and Rosine Mendel, ,in what was then Heinzendorf, Austria.
he spent his life in that rural setting, until age 11, when a local schoolmaster who was impressed with his natural ability to learn and suggested that he be sent to secondary school in Troppau to continue his education.
The move was a financial difficult on his family
in 1840, he graduated from the school with honors.
after graduating Mendel enrolled in a two-year program at the Philosophical Institute of the University of Olmütz.
There, he again showed his talents in the subjects of physics and math,
Mendel graduated from the program in 1843.
That same year Mendel began studying to be a monk at the monastery of and was given the name Gregor.
In 1849 gregor became ill, and went to the university of Vienna
In 1853, upon completing his studies at the University of Vienna, Mendel returned to the monastery in Brno and was given a teaching position at a secondary school, It was during this time that he began the experiments for which he is best known.
He then passed away on January 6, 1884 at the age of 61 from chronic nephritis
In one experiment Mendel crossed smooth yellow pea plants with wrinkly green peas. Every single pea in the first generation crop was as yellow and as round as was the yellow, round parent. Somehow, yellow completely dominated green and round dominated wrinkly.
Mendel learned from this that there are two kinds of traits - dominant and recessive. He also learned that the inheritance of each trait is determined by "units" or "factors" - now called genes.
Now he went on with his experiment and planted seeds from the all-yellow, all-round crop. The results led to some surprises. Most of the second generation of peas were yellow and smooth, but some were green or wrinkly. Mendel repeated his experiment many times and had a 3:1 ratio of yellow to green and round to wrinkly.
In the pollination process the offsprings get one trait unit (gene) from every parent. The combinations from the four - gY Yg YY - will give yellow offsprings since all of them possess at least one Y dominant unit. Only one combination from the four - gg - will give green offsprings since it has two recessive units.
in order to show-up, a dominant trait needs only one trait unit from one of the parents, and the recessive one needs two, from both parents.
Mendel came to three important conclusions from these experimental results:
That the inheritance of each trait is determined by "units" or "factors" (now called genes) that are passed on to descendents unchanged
That an individual inherits one such unit from each parent for each trait
That a trait may not show up in an individual but can still be passed on to the next generation.
Gregor Mendels work influenced the whole world by giving the basis on modern genetics
with out Gregor Mendel work we would still be like the farmers in Gregor Mendels time era
we also wouldn't know how genetics works
Gregor supplied the basis of genetics and without that we would be lost in the world of genetics without him
thank you "father of modern genetics"
Double Felix structure
Homozygous and Heterozygous
Homozygous is when an offspring's genotype is made up of two identical alleles, so a the offspring would be purebred for that trait.
Heterozygous is when an offspring's genotype is made up of two different alleles, so the offspring would be hybrid for that trait.