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Educational Leadership Model
Transcript of Educational Leadership Model
Elements Vision/Goals Literature References Student
Outcomes Relationship of Elements Relationships "Effective leaders help articulate a vision, set standards for performance and create focus and direction." (Boleman and Deal 2008, p.345). Educational Leadership is... According to Cardno (2012, p.20) "Educational leadership focuses on developing the climate and conditions and exerting influence indirectly to enhance the quality and teaching and learning." Success influencing teaching and learning to enhance student learning outcomes. Strategic Resourcing Pedagogical Leadership Environmental Climate/Culture "The core purpose of educational leadership is to cultivate meanings of learning, communities of learning and responsibility for learning." (Starratt, 2003, cited in Youngs, 2011, p.196). "A vision and common goals, it is generally held, bind organisations together...reaching a consensus on instructional goals is regarded as extremely important." Weber (1996, p.258). "...Effective leadership involves not only determining the goal content (task focus), but doing so in a manner that enables staff to understand and become committed to the goal." (Robinson, Hohepa and Lloyd 2009: 8, cited in Bishop, 2011, p.30). It is clear that relationships are an important aspect of this dimension because leaders in high-performing schools tend to give priority to communicating goals and expectations, informing the community of academic accomplishment, and recognising academic achievement (Robinson, et. al., 2009). Burns (1978), Gardner (1986), Kotter and Cohen (2002), and Heifetz and Linskey (2002) argue persuasively that leaders need skill in managing relationships with all significant stakeholders, including superiors, peers, and external constituents (cited in, Bolman & Deal, 2008, p. 348). "Engagement in productive interpersonal relationships are key capabilities for leaders to participate in learning conversations. Such conversations both require and build relational trust between professional colleagues." (Cardno, 2012, p.54). Working with people is a fundamental aspect of leadership in order for organisational goals to be achieved. Therefore relationships and the building of relational trust is critical. Values, beliefs, organisational culture Leadership is always situated in both relationships and contexts (Bolman and Deal (2008, p. 342). "Of all the important factors that appear to affect students' learning perhaps having the greatest influence is the set of beliefs, values and attitudes that adminstrators, teachers and students hold about learning." (Weber 1996, p.263). The Learning Climate can be defined as the norms, beliefs and attitudes reflected in the institutional patterns and behaviour practices that enhance or impede student learning. (Lezotte cited in Weber 1996, p.263). "The development of an organisational culture that supports emergent leadership engenders a climate of trust, where teachers can work collaboratively within self-sustaining teams..." (Jordan 2008, p.84). The organisational environment is incredibly complex. However people are shaped by the conditions and elements of the environment (Bolman and Deal (2008, p.123). Establishing a positive working environment that is conducive towards increasing student achievement and creating positive relationships (Staff, student teacher, parent and community) is integral to student learning and development. An understanding of the socio-economic, cultural and historical background of different working environments is essential to implementing effective leadership. Strategic resourcing is not just the securing of resources, but the securing and allocating of resources based on specific goals and vision of educational institutions. Human resources, budgeting, Peformance Management "Leadership is also exercised through obtaining and allocating material, intellectual, and human resources. As the word 'strategically' signals, this dimension is not about securing resources per se but about securing and allocating resources that are aligned to pedagogical purposes." (Robinson, Hohepa and Lloyd 2009, p.41). One of the 21 key areas of responsibilities identified "resources: provides teachers with the materials and professional development necessary for the successful execution of their jobs." (Waters, Marzano, McNulty, 2004, p.49). Trust, communication Curriculum development and implementation, instructional actions, student achievement "Effectively led schools are characterised by teachers who attribute student achievement towards specific, teacher implemented, instructional actions and planning processes." (McDougal, Saunders and Goldenberg, 2007, cited in Bishop 2011, p.37). "Effective leadership...promotes and is responsive to the development and implementation of pedagogic relationships and interactions in the classrooms that promote...improvements in student learning and achievement." (Bishop 2011, p.29). "In signifying the critical need for pedagogical leadership, the emphasis is on developing capabilities for provision of such leadership from multiple leaders at a variety of levels in the organisation." (Cardno 2012, p.26). Educational Leadership has an important role in developing pedagogical leadership and capability. The core purpose of educational leadership is to provide a clear focus to enable the institution to achieve its learning and teaching vision and goals. Focus,
Commitment Growth Achievement New Learning Sense of
Development Ownership Goals Key Competencies Fun Enjoyment Sense of
and value Expectations National Standards NZ Curriculum Relationships Environmental
Goals Educational Leadership
Model SLO SLO Bishop, R. (2011). How effective school leaders reduce educational disparities. In J. Roberston & H. Timperley (Eds.), Leadership and learning (pp. 27-40). London: Sage.
Bolman, L. G. & Deal, T. E. (2008). Reframing Organizations, artistry, choice and leadership. Wiley & Sons Inc.: San Francisco.
Cardno, C. (2012). Managing effective relationships in education. London: Sage Publications.
Jordan, B. (2008). Leadership leading learning and teaching: Leadership practices in early childhood resulting in learning for children. Journal of Educational Leadership Policy and Practice, 23(2), 74-86.
Robinson, V., Hohepa, M. & Lloyd, C. (2009). School leadership and student outcomes: Identifying what works and why. Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration (BES). Wellington: New Zealand Ministry of Education.
Waters, T. J., Marzano, R.J. & McNulty, B. (2004). Leadership that sparks learning. Educational Leadership, 61 (7), 48-51.
Weber, J. (1996). Leading the instructional programme. In S. C. Smith & P. K Piele (Eds.) School leadership: Handbook for excellence. (pp. 253-278). University of Oregon: Clearinghouse on Educational Management.
Youngs, H. (2011). The school leadership and student outcomes Best Evidence Synthesis: Potential challenges for policy-makers, practitioners and researchers. Journal of Educational Leadership, Policy and Practice 26(1), 16-27. SLO SLO Carol Morrissey