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Chapter 6: Socialization
Transcript of Chapter 6: Socialization
designed by Péter Puklus for Prezi
Nature vs. Nurture: What Sociologists Believe
the life-long process through which people learn their culture's norms, values, beliefs and appropriate behaviors.
Biology (our genes) represent possibilities; culture and socialization act on those possibilities to make us who we are.
Biology is NOT destiny! (biological determinism)
One of the earliest and strongest forms of socialization we experience.
Varies by culture based on cultural expectations and gender norms in each culture.
Who socializes us?
- Agents of socialization-
people and groups who teach us about culture.
- Family (most important agent for children)
- School (hidden curriculum)
- Media (generation "M")
- Peer groups
- Religion (promotion of non-material values)
This is socialization.
Discuss with the person next to you, some of your favorite childhood games. Focus on what you think the game taught you about society or what lessons you learned.
Components of Socialization
the source of what is being learned (example: a child be socialized from parents, from school, from TV, game).
how things are learned
the process by which initially external behavioral standards (for example, those held by parents) become internal and guide behavior
the person who is being socialized
the lesson (values, behavior, skills).
Socialization through the life-course
examines how age, time, and place
shape social identities and experiences over a lifetime.
Rites of passage
-activities that mark and celebrate a change in
a person's social status (graduation, marriage, having children)
What happens if you don't pass through these rites of passage, especially at certain ages? Do these rites
vary by gender?
Childhood/Adolescence are social constructs.
Did you know not all societies have the idea of a distinctive childhood? Why?
Adolescence emerged in the early 20th century because of:
- Industrialization and affluence
- Increased leisure time (not working)
new life stage, in 20s in the US, greater uncertainty about jobs and relationships than previous generations
Target to eliminate "boy" and "girl" toy labels as well as color coded backgrounds.
Socialization: The Power of Language
Socialization and Sense of Self.
Sense of self-
collection of thoughts and feelings you have when considering yourself as an object
- sense of self develops through social interaction
Looking glass self-
our sense of self develops as a reflection of the way we think others see us; Cooley
- We imagine our image in the eyes of others
- We imagine others making judgments about us
- We experience a feeling as a result of imagined judgment
The Good Ol' Days
Wait, that's not really accurate!
The "traditional family" was really an anomaly between WWII and the early 1970s because of affluence for middle-class whites (union jobs, less consumerism)
What about working class and poor families?
The Not-So Good Ol' Days
- Inequity in households and power; women had no income
- Limited and exclusive definition of family
- But...there were low divorce rates, right?
- Less likely to marry now than at any time in history (college graduates most likely to marry)
- Fertility rate of married women has fallen and more children born outside marriage
- Half of all couples live together prior to marriage (cohabitation)
- Younger Americans more likely to marry across racial/ethnic lines
75% of single parent households headed by women
Feminization of poverty-
disproportionate increase in the level of poverty for women relative to men (both global and local)
unified system of beliefs and ritual practices relating to the sacred that bond people into a moral community
Sociologists study the role of religion in social life, not the truth claims of religions
86% of people in the world identify with a religion
What nations have higher levels of religious service attendance?
The Big 3 and Religion
religion is a source of camaraderie and solidarity;religion is most fundamental social institution leading to collective consciousness
religion is "the opium of the people"-- it provides temporary relief from oppression (without addressing the source) and serves the interests of the ruling class.
the protestant ethic (self-denial, frugality, hard work) allowed people to earn and save (spirit of capitalism) which fueled industrialization
Fastest growing religion (16.1%) in the US is the unaffiliated (atheists, agnostics, "nothing in particular")
the decline in the social significance of religious beliefs, practices, and institutions
belief system emphasizing morality based on reason, ethics, social justice
Effects of Less Organized Religion
Presumed lifecourse (from TrboTax given to a self-identified single person)
Who is she? What is this all about?
What privileges may you take for granted if you are heterosexual?
Is hip hop an effective medium to educate and create discussion about social issues?
June 26, 2015 Supreme Court ruled that US constitution guarantees the right of same-sex couples to marry in all 50 states