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Transcript of Animation
made possible with
'persistence of vision'
which is tricking the
human eye into thinking
its seeing movement.
When actually, all it
is seeing is a series Stop motion or 'stop frame' is a animation technique used to create the illusion of movement of a certain object. This is achieved by moving the subject by a tiny amount for each frame. Obviously it is not possible to film this, so when the subject is in the right position, a photo is taken from a fixed position. The series of chronological pictures are what you see in any stop motion feature. Stop Motion Persistence of Vision of frames being played every
24th of a second. The fewer frames per Usually the characters, props and settings
are made out of plasticine as its so
malleable which makes it easier to twist,
turn and alter the positioning of the
subject. Its a long and irritating process
which is has been used to make multiple,
extremely famous cartoons such as
Wallace and Gromit, South Park and
Nightmare Before Christmas. second, the less continuous the animation will be. Phenakitoscope - Joseph Plateau A very early animation device which was invented in 1841. An extremely simple design which uses persistence of vision, the Phenakitoscope was made up of a disc that could easily rotate on its vertical handle. Around the center of the disc would be 12 pictures (stages of the animation). Along with the device came a viewing slip which would blank out all but one of the frames, so when the disc is spun, the animation would come to life. An extremely significant device in the development of animation, would even be considered the primitive stages of persistence of vision. Zoetrope -William Horner The Zoetrope has a very similar concept to the Phenakitoscope. Instead, Horner used a cylinder shape to perceive motion. Around the inner surface would be the series of frames, each frame with a viewing slit above it and once the cylinder is spun, looking through the slits would reveal the animation. I'm guessing that the slip of frames could be replaced with different animations, which made the Zoetrope more of a personal device. Praxinoscope - Emile Reynaud The Praxinoscope was invented in France 1877, and was a massive step up from the Zoetrope, even though the designs were extremely similar. Emile replaced the viewing slits around the outside of the cylinder, with a inner circle of mirrors. A later edition in 1889, extended the abilities of the Praxinoscope making it capable of projecting images onto a screen. Zoopraxiscope -Edward Muybridge This creation could be considered one of the earliest form of film projectors,developed by Muybridge in 1879. Much like the Phenakitoscope, it uses images on a glass disc which is then spun to give the impression of movement. The concept of the Zoopraxiscope is so similar to the Cinema experience we are used to today, the footage is made up of several still frames put together and the projecter now expanded the capacity of the audience. Where as earler inventions were extremely personal. Kinetoscope -Thomas Edison In a sense, the Kinetoscope was an upgrade and downgrade from Muybridge's creation. It limited the viewer of the animation to one person at a time, who would look through the peep hole. But on the progressive side, it's extremely similar to the modern day film projector in the way it uses a long strip of film over a light with high speed shutter. "Cameraman's Revenge" Ladislaw Starewicz Not only is it considered the first fully animated film, but Emile Cohl's Fantasmagorie is the earliest example of handrawn animation dating back to 1908. It could be said that this is the first steps towards the creations of cartoons that we watch today such as; The Simpsons, Family Guy, Adventure Time etc. Georges Melies A French illusionist who accidentally stumbled upon the technique of stop motion when his camera had jammed, and noticed that after development, the film revealed the ability to make an actor completely dissapear. Although this came under special effects, Melies managed to manipulate it into it's own genre using theatrical tricks and illusions that had never been seen before in the cinematic indusrty. Georges is most famous for his surreal adventures, imcluding A Trip To The Moon and The Impossible Voyage. Although Melies methods can seem a little out dated, you can still see fragments of them in current cinematography. For example, Henry Selick's recent interpretation of Coraline uses the same bases of animation that were discovered back in 1896 by Melies. Emile Cohl's "Fantasmagorie" The French/Russian stop motion enthusiast, Ladislaw Starewicz could well be considered the Father of puppet-animated films. He's extremely famous for using unorthodox protagonists for his films, such as dead animals and insects. Probably his most famous piece of work the "Cameraman's Revenge" made in 1912, which expresses a story of love, affair and vengeance, all between a group of Beatles and a Dragonfly. Starewicz's stop motion techniques even managed to convince some critics that his films were acted out by well trained insects. His methods are still frequently used today, especially by the director Tim Burton who specialises in animation. He has a large collection of stop motion films that
use 'claymation' which is theoretically the same as
Ladislaw's techniques. Winsor McCay In 1912, Winsor McCee created Gertie The Dinosaur. And although it wasn't the first animation, Gertie is well known for being the very first animated character with a personality that could appeal to the audience. This was a milestone in the progression of animation, instead of just telling a very simple story, it now had a whole new dynamic that the viewers can enjoy and relate to. The concept of having characters with a very obvious persona is now used in most feature length animated cartoon. For example, in any of Pixar's films, it will be based around a group of outlandish and highly likeable character (s) that twist and turn though a well laid out narrative. Pixar have not only taken inspiration from McCay, but taken it to a whole new level. "Gertie the Dinosaur" Earl Hud &
John Bray "Bobby Bumps Starts a Lodge" Earl Hud, the animator behind the Bobby Bump cartoons, revolutionised the whole animation industry back in 1918 when he and Bray discovered the technique of 'cel animation'. Before hand, cartoons would be processed on paper, a new drawing for a new frame. But the two animators came up with the idea of drawing their characters on a celluloid paper and put it on top of a still background. This meant that not only a lot of time would be saved from not having to draw a background, but that the continuity between the characters movement could be a lot easier to tweak and manipulate. Walt Disney The man himself, Walt Disney, possibly one of the most recognised names in the industry and the founder of the highly successful Disney studios, who have been animating for well over 90 years. Walt Disney is responsible for some of the most famous cartoon characters around, such as Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck and Goofy all which bring life to his work. But his success didn't just happen through luck.Walt and his co workers established '12 principles of animation' which they used
from the very beginning of their
careers... 12 Principles of Animation Stop Motion
Animation Stop motion is an extremely renowned technique of animation and has been revolutionised to create some of the most popular animations to day. It involves an extremely small amount of physical manipulation of a subject for each frame. When each frame of the animation is played at high speed, it creates the illusion that the subject is moving to its own accord. The benefits of stop motion is that as long as it is maneuverable, the subject can be absolutely anything; from people to household objects, from pieces of paper to clay. Examples of stop motion techniques are Wallace & Gromit, South Park, Coraline etc. It has been used in nearly all formats of on screen media; music videos, TV series, movies, internet shorts, advertisement and so on. Squash & Step: This is noticed as the most important principle out of the 12, as it gives weight and flexibility to the movement of the subject. After evaluating 'Fantasia' you will notice that every step that Mickey takes, his foot as long with the rest of his body squishes down and stretches up into it's original position. It links the actions of the character extremely fluently and i feel that it is the foundation that Disney have built their animating style upon. FIN