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Ionic and Covalent Bonding

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Sarah Holland

on 16 September 2013

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Transcript of Ionic and Covalent Bonding

Atom
Ionic and Covalent Bonding
Ion
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
(cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr
(cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
An atom is the fundamental unit of which
elements are composed
An ion is an atom or a
group of atoms
that has a net positive or
negative charge
The formula unit
is the actual
formula of the
molecule (the ratio
in which the atoms
combine)
A molecule refers to
the physical structure of
a compound's
fundamental unit
Ex: (H O)
According to the above formula, there are two atoms
of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen required to make
one molecule of water.
However, in nature, one molecule of water cannot exist alone. Water molecules always exist in pairs.
2
Here's the actual formula:
2 (H O)
2
The ratio of Hydrogen atoms to Oxygen atoms is 2:1.
Since this formula shows that there are two water
molecules, there are a total of four Hydrogen atoms and
two oxygen atoms.
Ex:
O
H
H
This molecule also shows the
2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen,
however it is only showing one molecule. This is the most fundamental unit of water.
Molecules
Sharing of Electrons
Transfer of Electrons
When two atoms SHARE an
electron in order to reach
a stable configuration, it is called
Electron Sharing.
Formula Unit
The process by which an
electron moves from one atom to another atom in order to reach
a stable configuration is called
Electron Transfer.
A chemical compound is
a pure chemical substance
consisting of two or more different
chemical elements.
Water, H O, is a great example
of a compound.
2
Water freezes at 0 C and
it's solid form is
called ice.
o
Water's boiling point is at 100 C
and it's gaseous state is called steam.
o
Water is most commonly
found in a liquid state.
Some compounds may include a metal and a nonmetal.
For example, in sodium chloride (NaCl), Sodium (Na) is a metal and Chlorine (Cl) is a nonmetal.
Here are some of the characteristics of metals and nonmetals:
Metals:
shiny
malleable
ductile
conductivity
usually have 1-3 e- in outer shell
lose valence e- easily
form oxides that are basic
good reducing agents
have lower electronegativities
Nonmetals:
poor conductors of heat and electricity
brittle (if a solid)
nonductile
do not possess metallic luster
transparent as a thin sheet
4-8 e- in outer shell
gain or share valence e- easily
form oxides that are basic
good oxidizing agents
have higher electronegativities
Some characteristics of Sodium (Na) are:
soft material that can be readily cut with a knife,
good conductor of electricity
bright, silvery luster
rapidly tarnishes and forms a white oxide layer.
when sodium is introduced into a flame, it turns bright yellow
Sodium metal is highly reducing
Some Characteristics of Chlorine (Cl) are:
yellow-green gas
the smell of bleach.
relatively weak bond
highly reactive
An attraction between oppositely charged
ions is called an ionic bond. One electron will be transferred to the other atom.
A bond in which atoms
share electrons is called
an covalent bond
Here are some examples of
ionic and covalent bonds:
sodium chloride (NaCl, ionic)
2
magnesium fluoride (MgF , ionic)
carbon dioxide (CO , covalent)
2
2
5
diphosphorus pentoxide
(P O , covalent)
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http://www.destination360.com/north-america/us/california/images/s/sunset-beach.jpg
http://dthschemistry.com/ch_6_NaClBond.png
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8q_651jo5k
References
http://www.chemicalbook.com/CAS%5CGIF%5C1314-56-3.gif
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H2O
http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/img/content/multimedia/chapter_4/lesson_6/ionic_bond_sodium_chloride_3.jpg
http://www.scbt.com/images/gels/107283.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Carbon-dioxide-2D-dimensions.png
a metallic bond is just an ionic bond between two metal ions. All metallic bonds are ionic!
Objective: Understand the basic players in chemical bonding.
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