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Transcript of Afro-Eurasian Network
Charles Martel & Battle of Tours (732 CE)
Boniface (680-754): Donation of Pepin "protectors of the Romans"
Charlemagne crowned emperor on 800 CE
Reform of the State & the Church
1059 Investiture Controversy:
Future popes would be elected by the College of Cardinals
11/27/1095 Pope Urban II appealed in Claremont, France for aid to the Eastern Christians against the Turks
1099 Jerusalem captured by Crusaders: 4 Crusader states developed; Crusaders often adopted Eastern culture
The Holy War and Pilgrimage: religious motivations
Pope Innocent III & The Fourth Lateran Council (1215):
Isolation of Jews (ghettos); required to wear special badge; episcopal inquisition
"1 flock, 1 shepherd"
Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
Pope Celestine V abdiction (1294)
Problems with French King Philip IV
Unam Sanctam (1302): contests 2 Swords theory
Babylonian Captivity: Clement V (1305-14) first Avignon pope
The Great Schism (1378-1409)
Conciliar Movement: Removed 3 Popes; Pope Martin V (back to Italy)
China: Yuan Dynasty
Contact between East & West
Marco Polo (1254-1324) &
Kublai Khan (1215-1294)
Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)
Religious tolerance (no taxation of any clergy)
Mixture of foreign and Chinese in administration
Conquered Korea; failed to conquer Japan (1274 & 1281)
Expansion stopped after Khubilai’s death
Temujin-Genghis Khan (1162-1227) : unified Mongols
Northern China/Central Asia invasions
Trade routes: "Pax Mongolica"
The Black Death (Plague)
About 1/3 population of the entire population of Europe
Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
Over territory in France (devastated France)
National identity of England & France
What are the overall effects?
Reasons for the Crusades?
1. Wanted to liberate the Holy Land for pilgrimages
2. Papal prestige in relation to German emperor
3. Siphon off destructive energy of knights and institute church programs for Peace of God (limit private warfare) and Truce of God (ban warfare on certain holy days)
4. Attempt to heal schism between the West and East churches after 1054
Edessa fell to Muslims in 1144; Second Crusade led by kings of Germany & France failed to recover it (1147-9)
1187 Saladin (1138-1193) and united forces take back Jerusalem
Third Crusade led by Richard the Lionheart recovered some territories but not Jerusalem
Fourth Crusade (1204) led by the Doge of Venice: rape of Constantinople and a Latin Empire set up
Albigensian Crusade (1209–1229) against French heretics
Enthusiasm strong until about 1250
China:Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
Hongwu (Zhu Yuanzhang)
Commoner leads rebellion against Mongols; Mongols retreat to Mongolia (1368)
Reestablished pre-Mongol reforms (Ming despotism)
Emperor Yongle (r. 1402-1424)
Capital named Beijing (15yr building project)
Great Compendium of the Yongle Reign (1403-1408) Encyclopedia (11,000 volumes)
Contributions by over 2,000 scholars
Admiral Zheng He (1371-1433) Muslim eunuch
Treasure ships, series of maritime missions
27,800 men/317 ships
How do these ships compare to Columbus?
What are the effects of these voyages?
Mendicant orders: Franciscans & Dominicans
Philosophy: Aristotle Renaissance
Turn to the senses
Abelard (1079-1142): Reason & Faith
Yes & No
: reconcile statements
St Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274)
Distinction between philosophy & theology
Reform & Mysticism
Sufism: Mystic understanding of footsteps of the Prophet & Ali (Return to God)
Use of music; Rumi (1207-1273)
al-Ghazali (1058-1111)-Encounter with Allah
Meister Eckhart (1260-1328)
Women Mystics: Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179); Julian of Norwich (1342-1416); Catherine of Siena (1347-1380)
The Fall: No teaching for women
Role of the Holy Spirit (prophets)
Supporters from the Church
John Duns Scotus (1266-1308) & William of Ockham (d. 1349):