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ENDOCRINE FUNCTION OF HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY GLAND

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Song Yi Lee

on 7 April 2014

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Transcript of ENDOCRINE FUNCTION OF HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY GLAND

ENDOCRINE FUNCTIONS OF HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY GLAND
- Posterior pituitary secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) and oxytocin.
- ADH and oxytocin are produced by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus and stored in axon terminals in posterior pituitary
-
ADH
released when blood is concentrated
cause to reabsorb water from kidney tubules
-
Oxytocin
controlled by positive feedback
stimulate contraction of utreus during labour and the secretion of breast milk
QUESTIONS
Anatomy of hypothalamus and pituitary gland

1. Oxytocin
Stimulates muscle contraction of uterus during labour
Stimulate breast milk release

2. ADH (antidiuretic Hormone, vasopressin)
Stimulates reabsorptions of water from kidney tubules

3. TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
Stimulates thyroid to secrete thyroid hormones

4. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
5. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
Stimulates egg and sperm production

6. LH (luteinizing hormone)
In female stimulates ovulation and production of progesterone. In male stimulates production of sex hormone(testosterone)

7. PRL (prolactin)
Milk production in mammary glands

8. GH (growth hormone)
Promotes growth and control carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism


BIOLOGY 095E 2ND PROJECT
NAME : CARA LEE

INSTRUCTOR : ELISSA. ODGREN

TOPIC : ENDOCRINE FUNCTION OF HYPOTHALAMUS AND PITUITARY




THANK YOU
Reference
- Ben.G & Diana.F.W. (2011). The endocrine system at a glance. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Blackwell
- The editors of encyclopedia Britannica (1-27-2014 last updated date) scietific encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/528756/scienceom
- Mader, S. S., & Windelspecht, M. (2014). Inquiry into Life, 14th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
- Bowen, R. A. (2001). Functional Anatomy of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland. Retrieved from http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/hypopit/anatomy.html
Hormones secretion in posterior pituitary
Hypothalamus is located at the base of the brain in the diencephalon making up the floor of the third cerebral ventricle. Hypothalamus is integration center between nervous and endocrine system that contributes to maintain homeostasis of the body. This is because it contains interconnecting neurons that communicate with the rest part of the brain and that allows intellectual and functional signals to be transmitted into the endocrine system. The posterior portion of hypothalamus which is called median eminence contains neurosecretory cells and their axons run down through the pituitary stalk into the posterior pituitary gland.

HYPOTHALAMUS
Produces and secretes neurotransmitters and neuropeptides to stimulate and inhibit secretion of hormones in pituitary gland
Produces and secretes hypothalamic-releasing hormones and hypothalamic-inhibiting hormones that regulate secretion of hormones in the anterior pituitary.
Produces vasopressin(antidiuretic hormone, ADH) and oxytocin
Hormones secretion in anterior pituitary
Hormone released from anterior pituitary
1.Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Target organ : Thyroid

2.Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Target organ : Adrenal cortex

3.Gonadotropic hormone (FSH, LH)
Target organ : Gonads

4.Prolactin (PRL)
Target organ : Mammary glands

5.Growth hormone (GH)
Target organ : Liver, bone, soft tissues
Secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary is strictly controlled by the hypothalamus. Hypothalamus release hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones and they are carried to anterior pituitary directly via portal system.
Hypothalamic releasing hormone stimulate production of pituitary hormones except for prolactin. Hypothalamic inhibiting hormone inhibit secretion of prolactin from anterior pituitary.
These hypothalamic and pituitary hormons' level is controlled by negative feedback. The target organ provide negative feedback and regulate secretion of hormones.
Main Functions of Pituitary Hormones
Q.Why is the hypothalamus integration center between nervous and endocrine system?

Q. How are hypotalamus and pituitary glands connected and able to communicate?

Q. What hormones do hypothalamus and pituitary gland stimulates and regulate?
The pituitary gland is a small roundish organ which is attached to the hypothalamus by pituitary stalk. The pituitary has two portions : the posterior pituitary and the anterior pituitary. The posterior pituitary consists of axons of neurons whose nuclei are in the hypothalamus. Between the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary lies a portal system, consisting of two capillary networks connected by a vein. And the anterior pituitary is mainly composed of cells that secrete protein hormones.
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