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5 American Imperialism

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on 30 October 2014

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Transcript of 5 American Imperialism

American Imperialism
England adds 4.75 million square miles
France adds 3.5
Germany adds 1 million
1878 – controlled 67% of earths surface
1914 – 84%
European Empires 1914
“The great nations are rapidly absorbing for their future expansion and their present defense all the waste places of the earth”
“[We must] move quickly to make up for lost time.”
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge
Security/military Interests
Military in other countries
Naval ports
Creation of a major navy with aircraft carriers
Diplomatic Interests
Competing with rivals (business and military)
Helping an ally eliminate a rival
Enforcing Treaties
“American Interests”
What does “American Interests” mean?
It is very common to hear but not define
'Our self interests‘
'Our national interests‘
'Our national self interests'
'Our vital national security interests'
“American Interests”
It blankets every subject, every issue, every person, everything. There is no global issue, neither large nor small, which does not fit into a compartment-department of our US government.
‘Interests’ is Empire Speak
“American Interests”
Business interests
American owned businesses in other countries
Countries or revolutions may want to take the land back from American businesses
Natural Resources
Security of land and resources so American businesses may extract them
Transportation of goods
Safe waterways and roads
“American Interests”
‘Impact of Sea Power on History’ – Alfred Mahan
History of how English navies ruled the world
US will increase size of navy
Demand ports in other countries
Take over land
Sea Power
“Whether they will or not, Americans must now begin to look outward. The growing production of the country demands it.” 
Japan an isolationist country
Does not interact with other countries
US wanted key port in Japan
Opening of Japan
Commodore Perry arrives
Japan rejects him
Perry threatens to blow up cities with warships
Gunboat diplomacy
Japan agrees to allow US ports and trading districts
Jap. Embraces technology and imperialism
Builds massive empire
Purchased from Russia
2 cents an acre
Oil later discovered
Key port in Pacific Ocean
1877 Germans, English and US all claimed
Samoan Civil War divided the islands
1889 annexation
Ger ½ now ind. US ½ still American
American Samoa
Many US businesses or ‘interests’
Major sugar and fruit plantations
The Big 5
Companies that controlled most of Hawaii and land
Big 5 and US ambassador overthrow Hawaiian gov’t – end Hawaiian Monarchy
Sanford Dole elected president
Cousin John Dole later runs Dole Fruit Co.
Hawaii annexed by US (peacefully conquered)
Spanish-American War
1898 Spanish Empire in decline
Cuba and Puerto Rico
Pacific Ocean
Philippine Islands and Guam
Spanish-American War
Major American sugar interests
Cubans rebelling from Spanish control 10 years
US sugar business support rebellion
Major Banking Interest – National City Bank
Spanish react to rebellion with increased tyranny
Rebellion continues
US Newspapers, business and military contractors support American involvement
Spanish-America War – American Interests
US sends USS Maine to Havana Cuba to escort American businessmen out of Cuba
Maine explodes by a Spanish underwater mine
250 dead
Newspapers go crazy
War is Declared
Taxes raised (lineage – gift tax)
Volunteers for army called
Spanish-America War – Sinking of the Maine
Spanish-American War – Philippines
Battle of Manila
US Fleet from China annihilates Spanish Fleet in Philippines
Philippines annexed
Also Guam and Wake Island
Philippine leader Emilio Aguinaldo helps US kick out Spain
After, Aguinaldo declares independence and is attacked by US…
Teddy Roosevelt’s Rough Riders
Engaged in major battles
Lost 46 men
TR became a hero
Marine 2nd Lieutenant Smedley Butler sees his 1st deployment
Spanish-American War – Cuba
Americans succeed
345 dead from combat
2,500 dead from disease and food poisoning
(Still feeding them Civil War canned food!)
1,500 wounded
Spanish – 63,000 dead or wounded
786 combat / 8,000 wounds / 53,000 disease
Cubans – 10,000 dead
Spanish-American War – Casualties
Puerto Rico
Wake Island
US Gains
Cuba given limited independence
Platt Amendment to new Cuban constitution:
Protected US interests
US controls diplomacy and debt (banking)
US given land for military bases
Guantanamo Bay
Cuban sugar gets special privileges in US
Sinking of the Maine revisited
Spanish Investigation
Had a mine been the cause of the explosion, a column of water would have been observed.
The wind and the waters were calm on that date and hence a mine could not have been detonated by contact, but only by using electricity, but no cables had been found.
No dead fish were found in the harbor, as would be expected following an explosion in the water.
Munitions stores do not usually explode when a ship is sunk by a mine.
American news refused to report findings
1898 US Investigation
Conclusion: mine
1974 US investigation II
Conclusion: a coal spontaneously combusted next door to ammunition
1998 National Geographic Investigation
Not a coal- outside explosion
Cuba’s version
A False Flag event
United States blew up their own ship to get support for war

Havana Memorial for victims of the Maine:
Philippine independence denied by US
126,000 US soldiers to Philippines
Emilio Aguinaldo leads ‘insurgency’

The word insurgency vs revolution
Insurgent vs patriot
Philippine Occupation
34,000 Philippine insurgents dead

Philippine Population 1900 – 9 million
1908 – less than 8 million
1.5 million Philippine civilian deaths
Most by intentional starvation
50,000 by American soldiers
Most ruthless war in American history
Racism a major factor
Concentration camps
20% death rates: disease, starvation, torture and execution
After a Philippine victory General Jacob H Smith ordered all males over 10 years old executed
"I want no prisoners. I wish you to kill and burn, the more you kill and burn the better it will please me. I want all persons killed who are capable of bearing arms in actual hostilities against the United States,” General Jacob H. Smith said.
Since it was a popular belief among the Americans serving in the Philippines that native males were born with bolos in their hands, Major Littleton "Tony" Waller asked, "I would like to know the limit of age to respect, sir."
"Ten years," Smith said.
"Persons of ten years and older are those designated as being capable of bearing arms?"
"Yes." Smith confirmed his instructions a second time.
1st Lieutenant Smedley Butler leaves Cuba to engage in the frontier and village style warfare of the Philippines

Letters to Home
US will lose Philippines to Japan in WWII
Retake after the war
1946 Full independence granted
Philippine Aftermath
Japan and Russia fight over China
China divided into “spheres of influence”
Empires paid rent to control parts of the country
Imagine other countries renting out American states…
US too late, did not get a sphere
Talked everyone out of theirs for ‘free trade’
Open Door Policy
Empires best interests:
Keep Chinese gov’t weak
Cannot stand up to them
1898 Chinese revolted against Empires
Empires of the World fell on China
Destroyed the boxers
Major American Interest – Standard Oil
1st Lieutenant Smedley Butler departs from the Philippines to join in squashing the Boxer rebellion
Shot multiple times, receives medals, promoted to Captain,
China – Boxer Rebellion
1907 America expands its Navy and parades it around the world as a show of force
Great White Fleet
Controlled by US till 1930’s
US will manage elections to keep US-friendly gov’t in power

Dominican Republic

In many of these countries American owned businesses owned most of the countries land and natural resources
Revolutions in these countries included redistribution of land to the poor

Banana Wars
Banana Wars
US wants to build canal in Panama
Help American Interests
Connects Atlantic and Pacific Fleet
Help business and trade
Problem: Panama part of Columbia
Columbia won’t sell
Panama Revolt and Canal
US will not take NO for an answer
US and France organize a rebellion
Panama rebels and declares independence
US Navy blocks Colombian army from stopping it
Panama now a country - Construction begins
Panama Revolt and Canal
1823 Monroe Doctrine to Europe
Any further colonization will be an act of aggression and we will go to war
European banks control many Latin American Countries
Venezuela not paying and punished by Europe with sanctions – stopping trade
Sanctions cut off food and medicine killing civilians
Naval Blockade stops trade (Eng, Ger, Itly)
Blockade continued until Venezuela agreed to pay and be taxed 30%
Venezuelan Crisis and Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt Corollary
TR states US will step in and manage a countries money to prevent European action
US bought European debt and made Latin countries in debt to US banks
Used marines to collect taxes
Venezuelan Crisis and Roosevelt Corollary
President Jose Santos Zelaya challenged US and US business dominance in his country
Zelaya wanted to unite the countries of Central America as one country
US wanted him weakened
1908 Sent in Marines and supported rebellions
Zelaya flees to Spain
US will remain until 1934
Major Banking Interest - Brown Brothers Bank
US creates a ‘puppet’ gov’t (does what US says)
Augusto Calderón Sandino led a Robin Hood styled resistance
Executed during peace talks in 1934
Nicaragua’s #1 national hero
United Fruit Co. buys tons of land and buys politicians
Gets tax exemptions, land and privileges
President Manuel Bonilla puppet leader
Zelaya Supports Honduran rebels against Bonilla
US Step in to support Bonilla
Marines will deploy 7 times
1907 Honduras owes $124 million to European banks
Honduras land only used for exports
Not growing food
Dependent on American for food
JP Morgan replaces Europeans as bank
Did not allow non-Haitians to own land
US marines occupy Haiti 1915-1934
Haitian resistance known as the Caco wars
Create new gov’t that allows non-Haitians to own land (let US companies in)
Major Banking Interest – National City Bank
1916-1924 US Marines occupy Dominican Rep
Manage government money, collect taxes, fight insurgents
Ruthless Dominican soldier in US created guard Rafael Trujillo becomes dictator
US supports him due to the stability
Dominican Republic
Victoriana Huerta leads rebellion
Germany supports by selling him guns
US occupies Veracruz and to prevent sale of arms
Mexican Revolution
Support American interests - businesses
Prevent European influence
Puppet Leaders
Banking debt
Displays of force
Support/create revolutions
Latin American Imperialism Reflection
US Military Today
What are we still doin’ in Iraq? Can somebody tell me? Have we killed everybody? We some gosh darn bullies. We be on CNN like ‘say our name son, say it, say it three times or we gon’ come over there and kill everybody…Don’t believe we’re gangsters?’ Tell me what the Iraqi uniform look like... Don’t worry, I’ll wait…

‘Cause we ain’t never seen them uniforms! We ain’t killin’ their army, we’re over there killin’ them. We over there killin’ guys in sweat pants, tanks tops, flip-flops and a cowboy hat. ‘You shouldn’t have been talkin’ crap!’ Our government hustlers.

They get on the news and they act like we ain’t even over there killin’ real people. They don’t get on the news and say ‘today we killed 4 men, 3 women and 2 children.’ They use words people can’t readily identify. ‘Today we killed a group of insurgents.’ People be at they house, like ‘I don’t even know any flippin insurgents. You can kill all them flippin clowns; I don’t have not one insurgent friend.’
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