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Transcript of Equilibrium
Le Chatelier's Principle Knowing the value of K can tell us the tendency of the reaction. For instance, if k > 1 means the reaction system will consist mostly products. If K < 1 this means the reaction system will consist mostly reactants. Equilibrium is a dynamic situation 17.3 The Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium: A Dynamic
The Equilibrium Constant: An Intro. When a change is imposed on on a
system at equilibrium, the position of the equilibrium shifts in a direction that tends to reduce the effect of that change Chemistry H How do chemical reactions occur? 17.2 Conditions That Affect Reaction Rates EQUILIBRIUM 2BrNO(g) 2NO(g)+Br 2 Molecules rearrange
through the Collision
Model 17.1 The collision model is used to predict the rates of chemical reactions, particularly for gases. The collision model is based on the assumption that for a reaction to occur it is necessary for the reacting species (atoms or molecules) to come together or collide with one another. what kind of molecules depending on the mass of the molecule, if it has a low or high mass can change the reaction rate. Reactions speed up with temperature because not all collisions possess enough energy to break bonds. If the concentrations of molecules is increased, there will be more high-energy collisions, breaking more bonds, making a faster reaction. As the surface area is increased, more area of a molecule is expose which increases the speed of the reaction. The minimum energy needed for a reaction to occur is called the activation energy (Ea). Catalyst is a substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed. It works by lowering the activation energy for a reaction. 17.6
Heterogeneous Equilibria 17.8
Application Involving the Equilibrium Constant 17.9
Solubility Equilibria Cato Maximilian Guldberg and Peter Waage est. the law of chemical equilibrium as a general description of the equilibrium condition The Equilibrium expression: k= [C] [D] [A] [B] d c a b The equilibrium expression mean that for given reaction at a given temperature the special ratio will always equal to the same number, K. There are different sets of equilibrium concentration called equilibrium positions.
For reaction at a given temperature there are many equilibrium positions, but only one value works. A,B,C,D = Chemical species a,b,c,d = Coefficients If we know the k value we can also find the concentration of either the reactants or the products. For example:
K = 8.96 x 10 -2 For the reaction, the balanced equation is
PCl (g) PCl (g) = Cl (g) For the reaction, the balanced equation is
PCl (g) PCl (g) = Cl 2 3 5 PCl =6.70 x 10
PCl =0.300M -3 5 3 So We have to find Cl (g) 2 K= [PCl ] [Cl ] [PCl ] 3 2 5 Donye Beal; Alyssa Brockman; Teandria Green Equilibrium is the exact balancing of two processes, one of which is the opposite of the other. Equilibrium only occurs in a closed system Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic state in which the amount of reactants and products stay constant 2 3 Homogeneous equilibria – all the substances are in the same state:
N2(g) + 3H (g) 2NH (g)
HCN(aq) H+(aq) + CN(aq) 2 3 Heterogeneous equilibria – All the substances are not in the same state:
2KClO (s) 2KCl(s) + 3O (g)
2H O(l) 2H (g) + O (g) 3 2 2 2 2 2 The equilibrium position with a heterogeneous reaction does not depend on the amounts of pure solids or liquids present The concentrations of pure liquids and solids are constant. When ionic compounds dissolve in water, it dissociates completely into separate cations and anions. As the compound is dissolving, the cations and anions are separating but they are also colliding and reforming with each other. Over time the rate at which the compound is dissolving starts to match the rate of the compound as it is reforming: Solution Equilibrium This can be expressed as K =[C] [D] sp c d K represents the solubility product constant sp Thank You For Viewing This Prezi Created By Donye Beal, Alyssa BrockMan, & Teandria Green. Mr. Quigley is the Greatest Chemists never die, they just reach equilibrium A double arrow is used to
show that a reaction is occurring
in both directions various conditions effect Equilibrium At the macro level everything appears
to have stopped but at the molecular
level, there is frantic activity in the
reverse and forward direction Proper orientation
and enough energy