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Introduction to Argumentation

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by

Holly Lewis

on 4 November 2012

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Transcript of Introduction to Argumentation

DEDUCTION INDUCTION TWO TYPES OF ARGUMENT:
DEDUCTIVE & INDUCTIVE The conclusion is LOGICALLY ENTAILED in the premises
If the premises are true then it is IMPOSSIBLE for the conclusion to be false, so long as the argument is properly constructed. All universities in Texas are located in the Southern portion of the US.
Texas State is a university in Texas.
So Texas State must be located in the Southern portion of the US. MAJOR PREMISE MINOR PREMISE CONCLUSION TEXAS STATE UT AUSTIN SOUTHWESTERN U. RICE U of H UTSA TEXAS A & M The United States The South Texas Texas Universities The conclusion probably can be inferred from the premises, but not necessarily so. Some Types of Induction: * PREDICTION: Ex. The sun has risen every day since the beginning of time. The sun will rise tomorrow. * ARGUMENT FROM ANALOGY: Ex. I've really enjoyed every chocolate bunny I've ever eaten.
I'm going to enjoy this chocolate bunny. * GENERALIZATION: Ex. All of the students I've met at Texas State have been very nice.
Billy "Serial Killer" Jenkins just signed up for office hours.
I bet he'll be just as nice as all the others. * ARGUMENTS IN NATURAL SCIENCE: Ex. Exposure to more than 1 sievert an hour of radiation proved fatal at Chernobyl.
Exposure to more than 1 sievert an hour of radiation will prove fatal at Fukushima. Examples of
Induction My car turns to the right every time I
turn the steering wheel to the right.
At the next light, when I turn the wheel
to the right, my car will turn to the right
as usual. I failed my French, German, Spanish, and Arabic classes.
I'm pretty bad at learning any new language. Men who wear seat belts and use airbags have a higher
survival rate than those who don't. Therefore women
who wear seat belts and use airbags will also have higher survival rates. All of the other houses in my neighborhood have not
been affected by the wildfire. My house is probably
not affected either. According to the 1970s commercials, 4 out of 5 dentists
recommended Trident chewing gum. A majority of
dentists today must also recommend the brand. Examples of
Deduction Sports cars go fast.
A Porsche is a sports car.
A Porsche goes fast. Cats purr when they're happy.
Eerie is a cat.
Eerie purrs when he's happy. Pants are more comfortable than skirts.
Jeans are a type of pants.
Jeans are more comfortable than skirts. Schools need money to stay open.
Texas State is a School.
Texas State needs money to stay open. Deductive arguments are sound so long as their premises are correct.
This argument is a deductive argument.
This argument is sound so long as its premises are correct. Test
Yourself Could this sentence be the premise of an argument?

"We should go to dinner tonight." Is the following an argument?

"I believe in God. Belief in God is very important to me
and it is important to my family. I can't imagine what
life would be like without God and I don't understand
how an atheist could live a fulfilling life." Is the following an argument?

Atheists cannot possibly live happy lives. I have met
many atheists and none of them were happy. I have never met Janet, but knowing that she is an atheist, I am certain that she cannot be living a happy life. Is the following argument inductive or deductive?

I've attended six colleges and all of them have Spring
Break in March. I'm going to plan a vacation in
March because Texas State is bound to have Spring
Break in March too. Is the following argument inductive or deductive?

900 out of 1000 people surveyed in Austin
said they like barbeque. Most Texans love barbeque. Is the following argument inductive or deductive?

Everyone in Texas loves barbeque. San Marcos is in Texas. So everyone in San Marcos loves barbecue.
INVALID: An invalid argument is one that is improperly formed. Even if its conclusion happens to be true, it is not a logical deduction. The
conclusion does not follow logically from the premises.



VALID: A valid argument is properly formed. It is a logical deduction. The conclusion follows logically from the premises. If the premises are true, then
the conclusion is true. Even if one feels that the premises are not true or that it isn't possible to ascertain the truth of the premises, an argument is still valid if it is properly formed.



SOUND: A sound argument is a valid argument that also happens to be “true.” SOUND, VALID, AND INVALID
DEDUCTIONS

Examples:
Horror movies are fun (i.e. Horror movies belong to the category “things that are fun”)
The Ring is a horror movie (i.e. The Ring belongs to the category “horror movies”)
The Ring is fun (i.e. The Ring belongs to the category “things that are fun.”)


All actresses are beautiful
Marlene Dietrich is an actress
Marlene Dietrich is beautiful


All dogs are furry
Rover is a dog
Rover is furry

You are an archaeologist. You find ancient tablets which give the following information:

All Tupekiki are Bonga Bonga
Slupa Lee Lee are Tupekiki
Is it safe for you to begin thinking of all instances of Slupa Lee Lee as Bonga Bonga?

VALID DEDUCTIONS ARE LOGICAL!!!! VALID DEDUCTIONS
MAJOR PREMISE: S1 belongs to the set of P
MINOR PREMISE: S2 equals (or belongs to the set of) S1
CONCLUSION: S2 belongs to the set of P INVALID DEDUCTIONS INVALID DEDUCTIONS ARE ILLOGICAL

A FEW EXAMPLES OF TYPES OF INVALID DEDUCTIONS

(1) Fallacy of the Excluded Middle:

MAJOR PREMISE: S1 belongs to the set of P
MINOR PREMISE: S2 belongs to the set of P
CONCLUSION: S1 belongs to the set of S2
**********************
All pens are red
All plastic is red
All pens are plastic

My grandmother has a lot of guns
The Hutaree militia has a lot of guns
My grandmother is the Hutaree militia

All students are human.
All bellhops are human.
All students are bellhops.

John Adams passed aggressive national security policies
Fascists pass aggressive national security policies
John Adams was a fascist.

Eisenhower allowed high taxes
Socialists would allow high taxes
Eisenhower was a socialist.

People with blue eyes are silly
People with brown eyes are silly
People with blue eyes are people with brown eyes

Marijuana is a drug
Cocaine is a drug
Marijuana is cocaine 2) Negation in the Minor Premise

MAJOR PREMISE: S1 belongs to the set of P
MINOR PREMISE: S2 doesn’t equal S1
CONCLUSION: S2 doesn’t belong to the set of P

Examples:
Dogs are furry (dogs belong to the set of furry things)
Harry is not a dog
So, Harry is not furry

This argument is invalid.
The conclusion does not follow from the premises. Nothing has been proven.

***Note: negation in the predicate of the MAJOR premise is okay


MAJOR PREMISE: S1 belongs to the set of not-P
MINOR PREMISE: S2 equals (or belongs to the set of) S1
CONCLUSION: S2 belongs to the set of not-P

All cats are not prickly
Renaldo is a cat.
Renaldo is not prickly.

This argument is valid. The conclusion follows from the premises.


3) IRRELEVANCE/MIXED TERMS

S1 belongs to the set of P
S2 equals S3
S2 belongs to the set of P

All Space Aliens are green
Rhinos are mammals.
Rhinos are green.

All lions are cats
Fluffy has long golden hair.
Fluffy is a cat.

ALL INVALID!

4) INTRODUCING NEW TERMS

All dogs bark
Rover is a terrier
Rover barks

***This is invalid, because you haven’t proved that terriers are dogs.

Think of it this way. Go back to being an archaeologist. You find this:

All Tupekiki are Bonga Bonga
Slupa Lee Lee are Flik-do

Can you still be sure that all Slupa Lee Lee are Bonga Bonga without first proving that Flik-do are Tupekiki? No.

A sound argument is a valid deduction that also has the metaphysical property of “being true” in all its terms in all cases. This is a pretty hard criteria to meet. Here are a few examples of sound arguments:

All state universities offer classes.
Texas State is a state university.
Texas State offers classes.

All cities in Texas are in the Southern US
Austin is a city in Texas
Austin is in the Southern US

All Manhattan is an urban area.
The residents at Waverly Place and 8th Street live in Manhattan.
The residents at Waverly Place and 8th Street live in an urban area.

All teachers at Texas State are employees.
Dr. Lewis is a teacher at Texas State.
Dr. Lewis is an employee.

All oceans contain water.
The Atlantic is an ocean.
The Atlantic contains water. SOUND ARGUMENTS LOGIC
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