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9/11 and the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq...

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Courtney waldrop

on 8 March 2015

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Transcript of 9/11 and the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq...

9/11 and the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq...
On September 11, 2001, 4 commercial planes were
hijacked
.
Almost
3,000
people were killed.
Two planes crashed into the World Trade Center towers in NYC
One plane hit the Pentagon in Washington, D.C.
The fourth plane crashed in Pennsylvania.
We refer to this terrorist attack as 9/11.
Almost 3,000 people died in the worst attack on American soil since Pearl Harbor.
This attack was very different from Pearl Harbor though, because it was NOT carried out by another country and it was NOT against military personnel.
The attacks were carried out by 19 hijackers.
None of the hijackers were from
Afghanistan or Iraq
.
15 of the 19 hijackers who carried out the attacks were from Saudi Arabia, but there is no evidence the government of Saudi Arabia conspired in the attacks, or that it funded the attackers.
Mohamed Atta, the leader of the attacks, was from Egypt.
Two hijackers were from the UAE, and 1 was from Lebanon.
All 19 hijackers were members of the al-Qaeda terrorist organization, led by Osama bin Laden.
Al-Qaeda (pronounced /ælkad/ al-KY-d or /ælked/ al-KAY-d; Arabic: , al-qāidah, "the base"), alternatively spelled al-Qaida and sometimes al-Qa'ida, is a militant Islamist group founded sometime between 1988 and 1989.
Al-Qaeda is a
multinational, stateless
army AND a
radical
Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad.
Multinational means this groups is in several different countries.
Stateless army means this group is not associated with any one single country or group of countries.
Radical means they are willing to bring about change through the use of violence
Sunni is the largest denomination of Muslims (85%)
Jihad generally means a holy war (does not have to be a physical war) waged on behalf of Islam as a religious duty and/or a personal struggle in devotion to Islam especially involving spiritual discipline.

Al Qaeda is a multinational, stateless army AND a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad.
-Multinational means this groups is in several different countries.
- Stateless army means this group is not associated with any one single country or group of countries. This makes it very difficult to fight against Al- Qaeda…
Al-Qaeda has attacked civilian and military targets in various countries, most notably the September 11 attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C. in September 2001. Their techniques include
suicide bombings,
car bombs,
children suicide bombers,
Improvised Explosive Device or IEDs,
and many more…
Al-Qaeda wants/ believes...
a complete break from the foreign influences in Muslim countries- meaning they want all non-Middle Eastern countries (like us) to get out of the Middle East.
It has also been reported that Al-Qaeda believes there is a Christian-Jewish alliance that is conspiring to destroy Islam- they view the United States’ alliance with Israel as proof of this.
To achieve these goals, they believe the killing of bystanders and civilians is religiously justified.
Meanwhile in Afghanistan...
Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda were identified as the principal suspects.
Within a matter of days Congress gave the president authority to use military force against the perpetrators and their supporters.
-The leader of Al-Qaeda,
Osama Bin Laden
was said to hiding in the mountains of
Afghanistan
, so about a month after the 9/11 attacks, the United States and the UK invaded Afghanistan in what was called "Operation Enduring Freedom."
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=120087842
-American and British forces along with anti-Taliban Afghanis overthrew the government by the end of 2001.
The Bush Doctrine: A New U.S. Approach to Foreign Policy:
President George W. Bush stated America would go to war with
terrorism
- making no distinction between the terrorist and the nations that harbor them.
“Either you are
with us
or you are
with the terrorists
.”
This proved to be controversial...
This doctrine new to American military strategy...
It is called a
preemptive
approach
It states that the U.S. will
strike first
The Iraq War:
- The United States became fearful that terrorist groups and countries in the Axis of Evil were planning on using
WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION

against civilians.
- A Weapon of Mass Destruction, often referred to as a
WMD

is a weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans and cause great harm.


Fox New War on Terror Handbook
http://www.foxnews.com/waronterror/handbook/flash.html

Think about the wars we are fighting in now... were any of these hijackers from those countries?
Al Qaeda is a multinational, stateless army AND a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad.
You may remember what a Radical is from when we looked at the political spectrum last semester…
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17722026
Al Qaeda is a multinational, stateless army AND a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad.
Jihad generally means a holy war (does not have to be a physical war) waged on behalf of Islam as a religious duty and/or a personal struggle in devotion to Islam especially involving spiritual discipline.
The goals of “Operation Enduring Freedom” were to
o dismantle Al-Qaeda,
o end its use of Afghanistan as a base for terrorist operations,
o remove the Taliban regime from power & create a democratic government.
-The democratic Islamic Republic of Afghanistan was formed and Hamid Karzai was chosen as the interim Prime Minister.
-Most of the senior Taliban leadership fled to neighboring Pakistan.
-Osama bin Laden and the al Qaeda members managed to escape capture for almost 10 years!!!

NPR Interactive on Afghanistan
A Weapon of Mass Destruction, often referred to as a WMD is a weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans and cause great harm.
WMDs include
biological weapons,
chemical weapons,
nuclear weapons, and
radiological weapons.
Here is where the War on Terror gets tricky…The UN did NOT support the decision of the United States to resort to using force. They passed Resolution 1441 by a 15-0 vote. The Resolution called for UN inspectors to be permitted into Iraq to find and eliminate any biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons programs. Soon after, UN inspectors returned to Iraq, and the chief inspectors began making regular reports to the Security Council on the progress of the work.
In the second half of March 2003 the Iraq crisis came to a head. American and British leaders were convinced that Iraq was not complying fully with Security Council demands. Iraq insisted it had no weapons of mass destruction to give.
The U.S. and Britain maintained that Iraqi leaders were lying. French, Russian, and Chinese leaders believed that inspectors were making progress and that there was no reason to approve a second resolution authorizing force.
The UN did NOT support the invasion of Iraq.
This is a big point that differs between the U.S. war in Afghanistan and the U.S. war in Iraq...
The
United Nations

(U.N.), the peace-keeping group formed after WWII, supported the U.S. war in
Afghanistan

to find Osama Bin Laden, the leader Al-Qaeda who is responsible for the 9/11 attacks.
The U.N. did

not

support the war in
Iraq.
The Iraq War Begins: On March 19, 2003 the attack on Iraq began. The United States was quickly able to take over Iraq and within 3 weeks, had captured the capital city of Iraq, Baghdad.
Saddam Hussein was eventually captured and on Dec. 30, 2006 he was hanged for crimes against humanity in the mass murder of Shiite men and boys in the 1980s, sent to the gallows in Baghdad by a government backed by the United States and led by Shiite Muslims who had been oppressed during his rule.
- So, Saddam Hussein was removed from power, a democracy was installed, and
no WMDs
were ever found.
(if time) More info on The Fight for Iraq: A Regional Powerplay
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17722026

Is this describing Shiite Iran, Sunni States, or Kurdish?
__________________________ expanding into Southern Iraq; Wants access to Shiite holy sites; Wants to dominate Iraq and gain access to the Persian Gulf.
__________________________ Do not want Shiites to dominate in Iraq; Allowing insurgents to enter Iraq; Fighting Americans who helped Shiite led government come to power.
___________________________ Wants to form an independent Kurdistan
Shiite Iran is expanding into Southern Iraq; Wants access to Shiite holy sites; Wants to dominate Iraq and gain access to the Persian Gulf.
Sunni States Do not want Shiites to dominate in Iraq; Allowing insurgents to enter Iraq; Fighting Americans who helped Shiite led government come to power.
Kurdish Want to form an independent Kurdistan
The Wars on Terror Linger On and Continue to Spread…
-As we already mentioned, there are still roughly __________________ troops in Iraq.
-There are still an estimated ______________________________ troops in Afghanistan.
The U.S. has been in Afghanistan for almost 10 years and during that time there has been an increase of Taliban and other terrorist-led insurgent activity against soldiers and the civilian population of Afghanistan. There has also been an increase in the number of U.S. troops sent to Afghanistan and U.S. troop fatalities.
The Wars on Terror Linger On and Continue to Spread…
- As we already mentioned, there are still roughly 47,000 troops in Iraq.
- There are still an estimated 100,000 troops in Afghanistan.

As of February 20, 2011 _______________ U.S. Military people have died: ______ in Iraq and ______ in Afghanistan.
As of April 10, 2012 6,418 U.S. Military people have died: 4,486 in Iraq and 1,932 in Afghanistan.
Tensions were high and people were scared. Many people thought that the leader of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, had WMDs and thought that Iraq posed a threat to the U.S. In October of 2002 the U.S. Congress gave Bush authorization to use the armed forces if Iraq didn't give up its WMDs.
The U.S. has been in Afghanistan for over 10 years and during that time there has been an increase of Taliban and other terrorist-led insurgent activity against soldiers and the civilian population.
Drone Attacks in Pakistan:
Most recently, the CIA has been using unmanned aerial vehicles, called drones.

- These remotely piloted planes are used to transmit live video from Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan to American forces, and to carry out air strikes. Counterterrorism officials see the use of the drones as a resounding success, eliminating key terrorists and throwing their operations into disarray.
- But despite close cooperation from Pakistani intelligence, the program has generated public anger in Pakistan, and some counterinsurgency experts wonder whether it does more harm than good. The recent increase in drone attacks also raised concerns that the drone strikes are fueling anger in the Muslim world.
- It is very difficult to get an exact number on the amount of civilians that are being killed, but according to former Pakistani Ambassador to Afghanistan Rustam Shah Mohman, "the assessment that we have, from the people directly affected in the tribal area, is that 80% of these casualties are innocent people."
In a nutshell this means...
Members of Al-Qaeda are
in several different countries, are willing to use violence to bring about change, and believe their actions are religiously justified.
What do the American people think today?
http://www.gallup.com/poll/161399/10th-anniversary-iraq-war-mistake.aspx
Meanwhile, in Afghanistan…
Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda were identified as the main suspects of the 9/11 attacks.
The leader of Al-Qaeda,
Osama bin Laden
was said to hiding in the mountains of
Afghanistan
, so about a month after the 9/11 attacks, the United States and the UK invaded Afghanistan.
Afghanistan at the time was ruled by the
Taliban
(who was harboring Osama Bin Ladin)
U.S. invasion got rid of the Taliban and set up a new Afghan government that was friendly to the US (most members of the Taliban fled to neighboring
Pakistan
)
The Taliban was overthrown without much loss of American life, but the number of American and Afghan
fatalities
has risen over the past 14 years as the Taliban and other insurgents have launched a comeback.


War on Terror Expands…
- By January of 2002, Bush announced an Axis of Evil (countries of
Iran, Iraq, and North Korea
) and this expands the scope of the war on terror even though there were no connections to the 9/11 attacks.
- This announcement combined with the goal of the Bush Doctrine to spread freedom and democracy set the stage for the invasion of
Iraq
.

- Tensions were high and people were scared and the U.S. accused the leader of Iraq,

Saddam Hussein
, of having WMDs and thought that Iraq posed a threat to the United States.
- Following the Bush Doctrine, the U.S. (with the help of the U.K. and a few other countries) conducted a
preemptive
strike on Iraq such an attack.
The Wars on Terror Linger On...
Despite the fact that both invasions were initially successful, there are still tens of thousands of troops in both Iraq and Afghanistan.
Each of these countries have different reasons as to why the violence still continues, but within each of the countries, groups have formed together to fight against each other for power and to fight against the United States (whom some viewed as invaders and not liberators.)

Open this link... View videos
http://www.choices.edu/resources/scholars_Lutz.php
The Costs of War: Human Life
The Wars on Terror Linger On and Continue to Spread…
Despite the fact that both invasions were initially successful…
there are still thousands of troops in both Iraq and Afghanistan.

Each of these countries have different reasons as to why the violence still continues, but within each of the countries, groups have formed together to fight against each other for power and to fight against the United States (whom some viewed as invaders and not liberators.)
Cost of War: Money
Cost of War video links...
PENCILS DOWN! Watch the video clips, then you’ll be given a few minutes to summarize each clip…

What have been the largest costs of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars? [3:15]
http://www.choices.edu/resources/scholarsonline/lutz/cl14.php

How are the Iraq and Afghanistan wars different from previous U.S. wars? [1:53]
http://www.choices.edu/resources/scholarsonline/lutz/cl16.php

Why is it important for high school students to understand the costs of the United States' wars? [1:59]
http://www.choices.edu/resources/scholarsonline/lutz/cl19.php




In sum, the wars will end up costing close to 4 Trillion Dollars.
The cost for both Iraq and Afghanistan/Pakistan is going to be close to $4 trillion, not including future interest costs on borrowing for the wars.
As with former US wars, the costs of paying for veterans’ care into the future will be a sizable portion of the full costs of the war.

The War on Terror's Most Recent Tool... DRONES
- Most recently, the CIA has been using unmanned aerial vehicles, called
DRONES


- However, some counterinsurgency experts wonder whether it does
more harm than good
by
fueling anger in the Muslim world.
- Counterterrorism officials see the use of the drones as a resounding
SUCCESS
eliminating key terrorists and throwing their operations into disarray.
- These remotely piloted planes are used to transmit live video of countries where we suspect terrorist and terrorist related activities to take place and to carry out air strikes.
Drone Video Links
Why has the United States used drones to kill suspected terrorists?
http://choices.edu/resources/scholarsonline/rohde/dr9.php

Are drones effective?
http://choices.edu/resources/scholarsonline/rohde/dr10.php

Why are drones controversial?
http://choices.edu/resources/scholarsonline/rohde/dr11.php

What should high school students know about the Middle East?
http://choices.edu/resources/scholarsonline/rohde/dr12.php
Full transcript