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Human settlements: cities

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by

juan santiago

on 2 December 2015

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Transcript of Human settlements: cities

Human settlements: cities
A settlement describes a territory occupied by people
In general, there are two basic types:
Forms of rural settlement
Urban settlements
Urban settlements are typically found in areas where there is industry and service.
Normally towns or cities.
Cities have high density of population and a large number of inhabitants.
Forms of urban settlement
Rural
Urban
recognisable by the size and the distribution of the settlements in the area.
This is the type of settlement characteristic of agricultural communities, forest and mountain areas.
cottage
made of straw
farm
Farmhouse with outbuildings
country house
clay bricks
wood
detached house
terrace
cottage
the roof made of straw
the walls built of wood
The shape, size and building materials of these houses are very different, depending on the physical environmental and local traditions.
Dispersed settlements: the buildings are dispersed among the fields, farming land and woods
Linear
Apartments
(block)
a flat
ground floor
flat roof
skyscrapers
skyline
Railway station
made of steel
glass
embankment
iron
cathedral
Parliament
pavement
avenue
stone
national flag
hotel
warehouse/storage
sewage system
mall center (shopping center)
factory
chimney
Metropolitan areas
They are the result of the growth of a big city or metropolis that increased in size to absorb surrounding small towns and villages.
Conurbations
They are the result of more than one city of similar size merging together.
Urban regions
They are created when a very large territory is urbanised due to the growth of individual towns.
Megalopolis
It is a large territory that includes metropolises and conurbations. The result is a chain of metropolitan areas that can be extend beyond the limits of a region.
Urban layout types
A city may be represented graphically on a map or street plan where the
streets
,
squares
and
monuments
are drawn to a given
scale
. Looking at city maps we can get an idea of the
structure
of a city and the way it has developed and grown historically.
Grid
The grid layout is composed of
straight streets
which cross each other at
right angles
. It is form by
parallel
and
perpendicular
streets. It is characteristic of new cities the Greek, Roman or Medieval ages, colonial cities in America an areas of
urban expansion
.
Irregular
In an irregular layout, the streets are
disordered
,
narrow
and
winding
, arranged without previous planning around a central
core
. The squares do not have clearly-defined forms.
It is frequent in many ancient and medieval cities.
Bourdeaux 1572
Frankfurt 1572
Madrid 1622
Radial
A radial urban layout consist of a
central square
with streets
radiating
from it, and cross streets forming
rings
around the centre.
It is typical of cities located on hill o by curves in rives and coasts.
The main sectors
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