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Jane Gallagher

on 14 October 2015

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Transcript of Macronutrients

and Their

By Jane Gallagher

Define each defination
Where are they digested and absorbed
Types and their purpose
Special characteristic and functions
Clinical application as they relate to health and diets
Carbhydrates Cont.
Types and purpose
Define as the "workhorse" molecule of life
Function as the essential for tissue growth, repair, & maintainance.
Its structure contains carbon, hydrogen & oxygen.
They are digested from the mouth mechanically and through the stomach by enzymatic breakdown. Then to the small intestine where the absorption occurs.
An organic compound that provides an important energy source during rest and low intensity exercise.
Structurally, contains carboy, hydrogen, & oxygen. Also contains phospholipids, phosphorus & occationally nitrogens.
Digestion occur in mouth stomach, but most takes place in the small intestine. Bile is produce by the liver & stored & released in galbladder & emulsifies fat globules into smaller droplets.
Absoprtion takes place through the mucosal lining of the small intestine, & when these product pass through the mucosa, they enter the epithlial cells.

Define as an organic compound that provide
Its function is to supply energy to cells, especially the brain that depend on glucose
Its structure contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Digestion and absorption occurs along the gastrointestinal tract
Simple carbohydrates
= quickest source of energy, as they are very rapidly digested. Found in fruits, milk, & milk proudcts
Complex carbohydrates
= are made up of sugar molecules, turn to glucose in the body & are used as energy.
Carbohydrates Cont.
Carbohydrates are the most abundant organic compound in the nature.
The health effects of the nutrient to the body is that it is a source of fibers that allows for the reduction of Obesity, Heart disease, Type 2 diabetes and High cholesterol
Proteins Cont.
Types of protein & purpose
Hormonal =act as chemical messenger to transmit signals from one cell to another
Defensive = a core part of immune system keeping diseases at bay.
Contractile = regulates strength & speed of the heart and muscle contractions
Storage = store minerals
Enzymatic = accelerate metablic processes
Transport= carry vital materials to the cells
Receptors =control substance that enters and leaves
the cells
Proteins Cont...
The health effect of protein is that its beneficial in treating catabolic illness when breakdown and loss of skeletal muscle become critical.
Have positive effects on protein metabolism in cancer patients for whom malnutrition and body wasting are life threatening.
Leucine reverses the muscle wasting associate with bed rest by stimulating protein synthesis wheelie decreasing protein breakdown.
Proteins can be characterized as extremely long-chain polymides that contains nitrogen. They are created in the body by condensation of amino acids under the influence of enzyme catalysts.
Lipids Cont...
Types and purpose
Triglycerides = known as fats; serves as for a long term energy storage.
Steriods = serves as the precursor molecules for the synthesis of other steroids including bile salts and steriods hormones
Phospholipids = serves as the basis for the structure of all the membranes of the cells.
Lipids characterize as insoluble in water.
Have high energy content & can be metabolixed to release calories.
Helps to create lasting structure within the body.
They are electrical insulators and are needed to insulate nerves.
Lipids Cont...
Health benifits of lipids are to facilitate in the intestinal absorption and transport of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E & K
They are use as cushion and protect the heart, kidneys and liver.
They are also help to insulate the body from the cold and prevent heat loss through the skin.

Cuyler. (2015). Lipids. Retrieved from Slideserve website: http://www.slideserve.com/cuyler/lipids
General biochemistry. (n.d.). Retrieved from Austincc.edu website: http://www.austincc.edu/emeyerth/lipids.htm
Mccormick, C. (2014). If I eat fat, will I get fat? Retrieved from PennState website: https://sites.psu.edu/
McKee, J. (2011, May). Perfecly imbalance. Retrieved from Whole Foods Life Wordpress website: https://
MedlinePlus. (2014, May). Complex carbohydrates. Retrieved from NIH U.S National Library of Medicine website:
MedlinePlus. (2014, May). Simple carbohydrates. Retrieved from NIH U.S National Library of Medicine website:
Proteins. (2015). Retrieved from Hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu website: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/
Reachminu. (2012, July). Digetion of lipids. Retrieved from Slideshare website: http://www.slideshare.net/
Schlenker, Eleanor, Joyce Gilbert. Williams' Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 11th Edition. Mosby, 2015.
VitalBook file.
Winston, C. (n.d.). How are carbohydrates digested, absorbed and eliminated? Retrieved from Demand Media
website: http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/carbohydrates-digested-absorbed-eliminated-6163.html
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