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Poetry

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Emily Hoffman

on 4 February 2015

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Transcript of Poetry

Collection 7: Poetry
Why Study Poetry?
1. One of the most powerful literary methods used to convey ideas or opinions
2. Poetry is everywhere: in Scripture, greeting cards, coffee mugs, music
3. Provides a deeper form of connection between reader and text, and reader and author
4. Gives us the opportunity to be creative
5. Offers multiple interpretations
6. Forces us to go outside our comfort zone
1. Approach every poem with an open mind and heart
2. Break down a poem bit by bit--annotate!!
3. Read a poem
at least
3 times and read poems out loud
4. Don't shut down immediately and say "I don't get it." OR "That didn't make sense."
5. Know that everyone takes something different, personal, and unique out of a poem
6. Focus on the elements of poetry and poetic form
How will we study poetry?
Reading of course!

Analyzing--looking for elements of poetry and figurative language

Writing about poetry and writing original poetry
Tips on how to read poetry
poeTRY
imagery

Image- a single word or a phrase that appeals to one of our senses-sight, smell, sound, touch, taste

An image can be so fresh and powerful that it can speak to our deepest feelings.

Images add emphasis to a particular part(s) of a poem.

Imagery is part of a poet's style and voice.

Images can make us feel joy or grief, wonder or horror, love or disgust.
Images show, not tell
PRACTICE WRITING USING IMAGERY
Choice 1: Write a 3-5 sentence description of your favorite room (or space) in your house.

Choice 2: Write a 3-5 sentence description of your school uniform

Remember to engage your 5 senses!
choice 1 example:
My ears fill with the steady beat of jazz streaming through the outdoor speakers. I smell the pungent toxins of a citronella candle deterring mosquitoes away from this deck retreat. I can practically taste the hamburgers sizzling on the grill in the corner of this outdoor living room .
"A Blessing" by James Wright Pg. 490
Catalog Poem
Brings together many different images and presents them to grab readers attention.

Has repeated images that create a rolling rhythm when the poem is read aloud.
"Woman Work" by Maya Angelou Pg. 494
In "Woman Work," the speaker lists her many onerous tasks. Her days are dominated by ceaseless labor and she cannot call her life her own. For solace, she looks to nature, calls on sun, rain, and other elements to cease her pain.
1. What does the catalog of images in "Woman Work" tell you about the life of the speaker?

2. Where do you think the speaker lives?

3. The 2nd through 5th stanzas of "Woman Work" address, or speak directly to someone or something. What things does the speaker address? What does she ask for?

4. What is the tone of the poem?
"Daily" by Naomi Shihab Nye Pg. 495
In "Daily," the speaker catalogs daily domestic chores. Repetition is a key element of the poem's structure and content, but it is ultimately transcendent rather than tedious. The theme is found in the final metaphor.
1. What do you learn from the images in "Daily" about the life of its speaker?

2. The last two lines of "Daily" are not part of the poem's catalog; rather, they sum up the speaker's message. What do you think the poet is saying about daily work in these lines?

3. The poem is written using the first person plural pronoun "we." Who do you believe the poet is referring to?
Homework!
Both of these poems were written by women about their specific and unique daily work. If the poems had been written by you, discussing your daily routine and responsibilities how might they be different?

Write a 10-15 line catalog poem using "Woman Work" and "Daily" as a model from your own perspective. Use strong imagery!
Haiku
The most famous form of Japanese poetry, can capture moments of life with the speed and precision.

17 syllables--5 in line 1 and 3
7 in line 2

Presents a moment of discovery or enlightenment.
Haikus on pg. 504
These four haikus present images of nature and ambiguous messages that are typical of the genre.
Sonnet
A form of poetry that is 14 lines long, follows a regular rhyme pattern, and is usually written in iambic pentameter

Iambic Pentameter-
lines of poetry that include 5 stressed syllables and 5 unstressed syllables. Rhyme pattern that is common in normal English speech.

Iamb-
an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one (da DAH), as in the word before.

Pentameter-
there are 5 stressed syllables, or beats, in each line.
2 Different Types of Sonnets
Italian/Petrarchan sonnet-
the first 8 lines pose a problem which is responded to in the last six lines

English/Shakespearean sonnet-
three four-line units are followed by a two line unit
"Once by the Pacific Ocean" by Robert Frost Pg. 508
In Robert Frost's English sonnet, the speaker describes the awesome power of the ocean as waves crash against the shore. The force of the waves and the implication of a coming storm make the speaker think of the end of the world
.
1. How can you tell that this poem is a sonnet?

2. In lines 2-6, what forces of nature seem to be human and alive?

3. What is the mood of this poem?

4. What connections do you make with the last line and specifically the phrase "Put out the Light?"
Lyric
"Country Scene" by Ho Xuan Hu'o'ng Pg. 510
Figures of speech
"Folding Won Tons In" by Abraham Chang
"Hope" is the thing with feathers"
by Emily Dickinson
"Fog" by Carl Sandburg and
"Fire and Ice" by Robert Frost
"Boy at the Window" by Richard Wilbur
"Still I Rise" by Maya Angelou
diction
Sounds of poetry
The writer's choice of words.

Poems are painstakingly developed through many revisions. Just a change in one word can make a poem that much stronger and more beautiful.
Two Methods of Diction
"Internment" by Juliet S. Kono
free verse
ballad
"Ballad of Birmingham" by Dudley Randall
"The Gift" by Li-Young Lee
"Lost Generation" by Jonathan Reed
A short poem that expresses a speaker's thoughts or feelings.
In "Country Scene", the poet expresses her views about what lasts and what doesn't last.

What does the speaker mean by "the emerald shadows of the ancient canopy?"


How would you describe the mood of this poem?

Expressions that put aside literal meanings for more imaginative connections.

Always based on comparisons that are not necessarily true.
Simile
X is like Y
A form of figurative language when two dissimilar things are compared using words such as "like," "as," "than," or "resembles."

Metaphor
X is Y
A comparison between two unlike things in which one things becomes another thing without the use of another word such as "like" or "as."

Direct Metaphor-
directly compares the two things using a verb such as "is"

Implied Metaphor
-implies or suggests the comparison between the two things without stating it directly.
Personification
Making the World Human
A special kind of metaphor in which human qualities are given to something that is not human--an animal, an object, or even an idea.
Rhyme
Rhythm
Drawing on the memory of his mother's technique for making won tons, the speaker makes his own for the very first time. A variety of images and figurative language is used to describe each step in the process. While the speaker admits his own won tons are not perfect, he takes pride in his accomplishment.
1. What does the speaker compare the won tons to? What type of figurative language is used? What does this comparison suggest?

2. What senses are evoked from the images in the poem?


1. What is the extended metaphor which Dickinson likens hope to?

2. What is the speaker saying about where hope resides?

3. What does the speaker mean by suggesting that the song is sweetest "in the Gale?" A gale is a strong wind--what does this symbolize?

4. How does the metaphor of a bird give life to hope?
These poems are two of the shortest that Carl Sandburg and Robert Frost ever wrote but contain strong metaphors. As we read the poems, use inference skills to figure out the implied metaphor in each one.
1. Do you think the comparison of fog to a cat makes sense? Why?

2. With what emotion does the speaker indirectly compare fire? Ice?

3. What is the speaker suggesting about the way the world will end?
At twilight, a boy is weeping for the lone snowman outside his window. A storm is approaching and the boy fears for the snowman's safety amid the wind and cold. The snowman possess many human qualities and is comfortable in the cold because he knows if he was indoors with the boy, he would die.
How is the snowman personified?

What two meanings of the word "melt" are used in line 13?

How is repetition used in the last line of the poem? What effect does it create?
The repetition of the sound of the stressed vowel and any sounds that follow it in the words that are close together in a poem: "nails" and "whales" ; "material" and "cereal" ; "icicle" and "bicycle"

Rhyme is not essential to poetry.

Adds to the music quality of poems.

Approximate Rhyme-
words that repeat some sounds, but are not exact echoes; sometimes called slant rhyme. For example, "moon" and "morn" ; "hollow" and "mellow"

Exact Rhyme-
words that form an exact echo. For example, "moon and June" ; "hollow" and "follow"
End Rhyme-
rhymes which occur at the ends of lines

Internal Rhyme-
rhymes which occur from within the lines of the poem
A musical quality based on the repetition of sounds

Just as music has a beat, or rhythm, so do poems.

Meter-
a common form of rhythm; a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in each line.
"I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud" by William Wordsworth
Wordsworth in this poem uses meter, a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, to create rhythm in his poem.

Wordsworth also uses rhyme and inverted word order to emphasize particular words through diction.
Onomatopoeia
The use of a word whose sound imitates or suggests its meaning:

clang
honk
bang
meow
boom
swish
Alliteration
The repetition of consonant sounds in several words, usually at the beginnings of words:
Questions 1-5 Pg. 421
1. Chora's haiku follows the rule of 5 syllables lines 1 and 3 and 7 in lines 2

2. In Chora's haiku-a road, bamboo trees, a toad
Basho's haiku-a pond, a frog, a splashing sound
Chiyo's haiku-a morning glory, a bucket
Issa's haiku- a dragonfly, the reflection of hills in the dragonfly's eyes

3. Basho's haiku relies most on the sense of hearing.

4. Both Chora and Basho's haiku take place in the Spring because that is the season in which people plant and frogs are most active. Chiyo's and Issa's haiku take place in summer because this is the season when morning glory is fully grown and when dragonfly's are most present.

5. Bashos image of a jumping frog contrasts with the stillness of the pond. Chiyo's image of an immobile plant with an active human. Issa's haiku presents the image of a large and brilliant landscape within the small eye of a fragile dragonfly.
Denotations-
the literal meaning of a word found in the dictionary

Connotation-
all the associations and emotions that have come to be attached to a word.
On December 8, 1941, the day after Japan attacked Peal Harbor, the US entered World War II. Early in 1942, the US government sent notices to thousands of Japanese Americans living in the West Coast, requiring them to report to relocation centers and internment camps. In this poem, a young woman is brought to an internment camp in Texas. Diction such as "branding" and "herded" reveal her dehumanizing experience.
Poetry that does not follow strict patterns of rhyme and meter.

Although free verse poetry does not have to rhyme or have a specific amount of lines or types of imagery, it still is focused and presents a clear theme and meaning to readers.
Elements of Literature/Poetry
Image
Catalog Poem
Haiku
Sonnet
Iambic Pentameter
Iamb
Pentameter
Italian/Petrarchan Sonnet
English/Shakespearean Sonnet
Lyric
Figures of Speech
Simile
Metaphor
Direct Metaphor
Indirect Metaphor

Diction
Denotation
Connotation
Rhyme
Approximate Rhyme
Exact Rhyme
End Rhyme
Internal Rhyme
Rhythm
Meter
Alliteration
Onomatopoeia
Free Verse
"Sonnet # 18" by William Shakespeare
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimm'd;
But thy eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st;
Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st;
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
Feeling and looking like cardboard and smelling so plain. We wear these uniforms that make us all stiff. They may look nice, but they don't feel the same. Plan and original we all look the same.

The green and tan blend with the atmosphere. The smell of fresh linen in the morning as I grab the rough polo shirt and smooth tan pants. Never changing, always there.

I sit quietly in a scratchy vest. I grow still and cold with goosebumps on my legs.

It's cold which makes me shiver and bumps appear on my arms. It makes the hairs of my neck stick up. The harsh wind is whispering. It sounds like whips and wheezes, but if you listen closely, they say something, "Go back inside." But I refuse. This is my safe haven.

My nose was filled with the aroma of cheeseburgers, as I lay on the soft pillows on the hot railing of the chair. The water of the pool glistened blue and all the colors of nature reflecting on it, the sound of the bees buzzing filled the air.


1. Describe the rhyme scheme used in the poem.

2. Give an example of a simile and analyze.

3. Name two things that are being personified in the poem.

4. Provide at least one line that ues inverted word order.
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