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the ABCs of government
Transcript of the ABCs of government
The U.S Constitution unit 3: Political Participation Articles of confederation Judicial Review Limited Government Magna Carta Declaration of independence New Jersey Plan Bill of rights Government Sovereignty Representative democracy unit 1: American Government Representative democracy is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected people representing a group of people. All modern Western style democracies are various types of representative democracies. Representatives hold the power to select other representatives, presidents, or other officers of government. The power of representatives is usually curtailed by a constitution or other measures to balance representative power. Sovereignty is the quality of having independent authority over a geographic area. It can be found in a power to rule and make laws.The concept of sovereignty has been discussed throughout history, from the time of the Romans through to the present day. It has changed in its definition, concept, and application throughout.The current notion of state sovereignty contains four aspects: domestic sovereignty, interdependence sovereignty, international legal sovereignty and Westphalian sovereignty. The Bill of Rights is the name for the first ten amendments to the Constitution. The ten amendments are to serve and to protect the natural rights and property of the people. They guarantee a number of personal freedoms, limit the government's power, and reserve some powers to the states and the public. The amendments were introduced by James Madison to Congress as a series of legislative articles. They were adopted by the House of Representatives on August 21, 1789, and became the Constitutional Amendments on December 15, 1791. The Declaration of Independence was created on July 4, 1776, which said that the thirteen American colonies, under British rule at the time, said they were independent states and no longer a part of the British Empire. They formed a new nation called the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence because he got a group of people to draft the formal declaration. Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document. The United States birthday, Independence Day, is celebrated on July 4. The New Jersey Plan was a proposal for the structure of the United States Government presented by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention on June 15, 1787. The plan was created in response to the Virginia Plan. The smaller states were opposed to giving most of the control of the national government to the more larger states, so they proposed an alternative plan that would have kept the one-vote-per-state. The Magna Carta, which is Latin for Great Charter, is a charter originally issued in Latin in the year 1215. It was the first document forced onto a King of England by a group of his subjects. They attempted to limit his powers by law and protect their privileges. It was translated into French as early as 1219 and reissued later in the 13th century in modified versions. The Articles of Confederation was an agreement among the 13 founding states that established the USA as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution. It was first started by the Continental Congress half way through 1776. An approved version was sent to the states for ratification in late 1777. The final ratification by all 13 states was completed in early 1781. Judicial review is the doctrine where the legislative and executive actions are review. Judicial review is an example of the separation of powers in a modern governmental system. This principle is interpreted differently in different jurisdictions, which also have differing views on the different hierarchy of governmental norms. The scope of judicial review differs from country to country and state to state. A limited government is a government that cannot interfere with personal liberties and individual rights because its against the law. It is spelled out in the Ninth Amendment and the Tenth amendment. Together, these two Amendments show the differences between the unenumerated rights versus the delegated powers of the federal government. The Constitution limits the power of the government in several ways. It prohibits the government from directly interfering with certain key areas. Other actions are forbidden to the federal government and are reserved to state or local governments. unit 5: The Executive Branch Electoral college Territory Weakness of articles Unitary System Veto unit 4:
the Legislative Branch Census Filibuster House of Representatives Impeachment Qualifications for office Tax Majority Whip unit 6: The Judicial Branch Office of Management and budget President's Cabinet Ken Salazar Kathleen Sebelius Filibusters can be defined as the use of irregular tactics by a member of a legislative to prevent the vote for a favored decision. Filibusters are used to push for changes in legislation or to prevent a bill from passing with less than 60 votes. Often, it is a way for the minority party to block legislation, even though the majority party chooses what bills will get a vote. A well known example would be in the Bush administration, when the democratic senators effectively filibustered against several judicial nominations. A government is used to govern the body of a nation, state, or community. The purposes of the government is to form a more perfect union because in the beginning, the colonies weren't united and they noticed that if they formed an alliance, they were stronger. To establish justice, to provide for the common defense, and to promote the general welfare are the other purposes of having a governent. A government is used to help keep chaos away and create a perfect place. The House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the United States Congress; it is also known as the House.The powers of the House is shown in Article One of the United States Constitution. The power of the House is to pass federal legislation that affects the entire country. The House has powers: the power to initiate revenue bills, to impeach officials, and to elect the U.S. President in case there is no majority in the Electoral College. Each U.S. state is represented in the House based on its population but is entitled to at least one representative. Each representative serves for a two-year term. Impeachment is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity that causes them to be removed from office. Impeachment was first used in the British political system. In the US, Article One gives the House the sole power of impeachment and the Senate the sole power to trial impeachments. For an office holder to be impeached, there is two stages and requires a two-thirds vote. Impeachment does not necessarily result in removal from office. There is a vote which determines conviction, or failure to convict, on the charges embodied by the impeachment. Kathleen Sebelius was born on May 15, 1948 in Cincinnati, Ohio. She has two kids, Ned and John, and a federal magistrate judge of a husband, Gary. Sebelius is the daughter of former Democratic Ohio Governor and they became the first father/daughter governor pair in the United States after her election. She is an American politician who has served as the 21st United States Secretary of Health and Human Services since 2009. She used to be the Governor of Kansas from 2003 to 2009 which makes her the second woman to hold in that office. She's a lovely woman. The mission of OMB is to serve the President of the United States to get his vision across the Executive Branch. The OMB is the largest component of the Executive Office of the President. They report directly to the President. The OMB carries out its mission through five critical processes that are essential to the President’s ability to plan and implement his priorities across the Executive Branch. The Cabinet of the United States is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. The existence of the Cabinet dates back to the first President of the United States, George Washington, who appointed a Cabinet of four men. All Cabinet members are nominated by the president and then presented to the Senate for confirmation or rejection by a simple majority. If they are approved, they are sworn in and then begin their duties. In order to be a United States Senate, one must be at least 30 years of age and be a United States citizen for at least nine years. In order to be a United States House of Representatives, one must be at least 25 years of age and be a United States citizen for at least seven years. In order to be president, one must be at least 35 years old, a a natural-born US citizen and have lived in the US for 14 years. In order to be the vice president, one must have the same qualifications for the president. Territory may refer to any tract of land; region or district. It may also refer to any separate tract of land belonging to a state. It could also be a region or district of the U.S. not admitted to the Union as a state but having its own legislature, with a governor and other officers appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. It may also even be a field or sphere of action; domain or province of something. A unitary system is a system of political organization in which most of the governing power resides in a central government. In a unitary system the central government commonly delegates authority to subnational units and channels policy decisions down to them for implementation. A majority of nation-states are unitary systems. A veto is the power to stop an official action. A veto can be absolute or limited. The senate may override a Presidential veto of legislation. A veto only gives power to stop changes, not to adopt them. Thus a veto allows its holder to protect the status quo. The Articles of Confederation gave too much power to the states and not enough to the central government. They created a weak central government, under which the states could not operate effectively as a single nation. The articles created no separate executive department to carry out and enforce the acts of Congress and no national court system to interpret the meaning of laws. A tax is a financial charge imposed upon an individual by a state; failure to pay said tax is punishable by law. Taxes consist of direct or indirect taxes and may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent. Money provided by taxation is used to pay for war, the police, protection of property, public buildings, public works.. etc. The states also use taxes to fund welfare and public services. A portion of taxes also go to pay off the state's debt. Kevin McCarthy is the majority whip in the U.S. House of Representatives and is the representative of california’s 22nd District. He was first elected to Congress in 2006. He is committed to policies that give small businesses and entrepreneurs the confidence they need to hire, expand, invest and innovate. A census is the procedure of systematically recording information about the members of a given population. In simplier terms, it's basically the official count of a population. The United States does a census every 10 years. FUN FACT: my mom worked for the 2010 census! The Electoral College is the place that officially elects the President and Vice President of the United States every four years. The President and Vice President are not elected directly by the voters; they are elected indirectly by "electors" who are elected by popular vote. The number of electors in each state is equal to the number of members of Congress to which the state has. There are 538 electors, based on there being 435 representatives and 100 senators, plus the three electors from the District of Columbia. In all states, except Maine and Nebraska, electors are elected on a "winner-take-all" basis. This means that if the other states has a candidate win, they win all their elector votes. Ken Salazar was born on March 2, 1955. He is the current United States Secretary of the Interior. He previously served as a United States Senator from Colorado from 2005 to 2009. He was one of the first Hispanic U.S. Senators since 1977. On December 17, 2008, President Obama announced he would nominate Salazar as U.S. Secretary of the Interior. On January 16, 2013, it was reported that Salazar will be leaving his post as Secretary of the Interior in March of 2013.