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Theories Mind Map

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Kaylon Russell

on 10 December 2013

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Transcript of Theories Mind Map

Theories Mind Map
By: Kaylon Russell and Jamie Dettman

Maria Montessori
Free the child's potential, and you will transform him into the world
Erik Erikson
"Children love and want to be loved and they very much prefer the joy of accomplishment to the triumph of hateful failure. Do not mistake a child for his symptom."
"The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done."
John Dewey
Howard Gardner
" Anything that is worth teaching
can be presented in many different
ways. These multiple ways can
make use of our multiple

"The child's own instinct and powers furnish the material and give the starting point for all education."
Lev Vygotsky
"The child begins to practice with respect to himself the same forms of behavior that others formerly practiced with respect to him."
Education should
be child centered.
Education needs to meet all of the
needs of children and take into
consideration family needs and values.

Teachers do not just
teach subject matter
Teachers aren't just teaching math, science, and literature; teachers are also shaping society.
"It's fun"
is Not enough
Plan lessons for a purpose,
children can still have fun when
they are engaged in learning, not
just when they play.
Montessori thought
teachers should...
Extend some responsibility
to children in keeping their
area clean and organized.

Give children the freedom to create
while they play on their own time.
"Teach little, Observe Much"
Observe the children and learn their interests,
guide them to discovery.
Child Sized Environments
Keep materials accessible &
within reach for children
Chairs and tables should be at the children's height, utensils
need to work properly and be proportionate to the children
Focus on Gains
Not Mistakes
Preschoolers need to know that teachers take
them seriously. Teachers need to make their students
aware their attempts are more important than their
mistakes or messes.
8 Stages of
Age: Old age
Stage: Ego integration vs. despair
Strength developed: Wisdom
Age: Middle age
Stage: Generativity vs. stagnation
Strength developed: Care
Age: Young adulthood
Stage: Intimacy vs. isolation
Strength developed: Love
Age: Adolescence
Stage: Identity vs, role confusion
Strength developed: Fidelity
Age: 0-1 year
Stage: Trust vs. Mistrust
Strength developed: Hope
Age: 2-3 years
Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
Strength develped: Willpower
Age: 4-5 years
Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt
Strength developed: Purpose
Age: 6-12 years
Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority
Strength developed: Competence
The Erik Erikson's "Eight Ages of Man" or "Stages of Psychosocial Development" as shown before is a very important piece of information that every early childhood educator should know. The chart for stages shows how children develop the foundation for emotional and social devlopment and mental health. This chart gives an educator a better understanding of the childs stage in life.
Piaget's Stages
of Cognitive

Piaget's Theory tells us children interacting with their environment is what creates learning. Piaget claimed that children construct their own knowledge by giving meaning to the people, places, and things in their world. There is an expression that Piaget is found of that sums up his theory "construction is superior to instruction" Teachers need to not teach, but help the children discover their curiosity in his/her own environment.
Sensorimotor stage
Age: birth-18m
Learn through senses, reflexes,
and manipulate materials
In connection to Piaget's theory, he also stresses the importance of play. "Play is an important avenue for learning. As children engage in symbolic play (making a cake out of sand, using a garden hose to be a firefighter) they make sense of the objects that surround them.
Preoperational stage
Age: 18m-6yrs
Ideas formed from perceptions
focus on 1 thing at a time
limited experience causes them to
make generalizations
Concrete operational stage
Age: 6yrs-12yrs
Ideas formed based on reasoning
thinking based on objects and familiar events
Formal operational stage
Age: 12yrs and older
Think conceptually and hypothetically
Jean Piaget
Zone of Proximal
Vygotsky placed a very high value on observation, he said the only way for teachers
to effectively teach in each students ZPD is
if they know their students current level of
Zone of proximal development is defined by
Vygotsky as "the distance between the most difficult
task a child can do alone and the most difficult task a
child can do with help."
"Encourage conversations"
Children need to be allowed to talk to clear up
any questions and misconceptions about new
subject matter. Allowing this will support the
development of their language skills and increase their comprehension. Learning and language doesn't
come easy or naturally, something teachers sometimes forget.
An important part to Vygotsky's ZPD is the "scaffolding" - "assistance a teacher or peer offers a child." "Adults and peers can help a child "reach" new concept or skill by giving supporting information."
Multiple Intelligence
Challenges teachers to respect each
child's learning style
Gardner proposed 8 different
intelligences. These are the different
ways children learn best.
Visual/spatial- like to
learn by seeing
Mathematical/logical- like exploring
with math and science and enjoy
learning through numbers and
Interpersonal- enjoy learning
in groups and understand people
Verbal/linguistic- good with
language and enjoy learning with
reading, writing, speaking and listening.
Intrapersonal- enjoy learning
on your own and understand
yourself really well.
Musical/rhythmic- enjoy
music and learning through
singing and rhymes.
Bodily/kinaesthetic- enjoy learning
by doing and moving things.
Naturalist- interested in whats
around you and enjoy learning
through the environment
Existentialist- really enjoy
big questions and learn by
asking them.
Children should be given multiple
opportunities to use each intelligence.
Just because students may favor one
intelligence doesn't mean teachers should
allow them to only use that intelligence.
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