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Unit 1: History of Psychology

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Andrea Wilson

on 17 August 2018

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Transcript of Unit 1: History of Psychology

400 BC
History of Psychology
Ancient Philosophy
Birth of Modern Science
Rene Descartes (1595-1650)
Dualism - Mind and body are separate
The mind transcends death
Wondered how the mind and body communicated
Development of empiricism
Modern Psychology
Willhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
Father of experimental psychology, he believed mind and behavior could be studied scientifically
Sought to measure the most basic mental processes
Conducted the first laboratory experiments in Leipzig, Germany in December of 1879
Set the precedent for psychology as a science rooted in research and showed that mental processes can be measured
Structuralism and Functionalism
Edward Bradford Titchener (1867-1927)
Student of Wundt
Felt we needed to go beyond the observable
Introduced Structuralism
sought to discover the structural elements of the mind
gathered data through the process of
- reflecting inward on experiences and reporting
Freud and Psychoanalytical Theory
Focused on the role of the unconscious
Did not conduct experimental research, made observations through case studies of patients
Internal conflict between values and desires
sex and aggression
early childhood events shape later behavior
John B. Watson & B.F. Skinner
Believed that the mind and body were separate
Knowledge is innate
learning is a process of inner reflection to discover the knowledge within us
Felt that knowledge was gained through experience
The scientific revolution of the Renaissance rekindled the debate about knowledge as natural and innate vs. knowledge as a product of environment
John Locke (1632 - 1704)
Tabla Rasa - the mind is a blank slate at birth (connection to Aristotle)
We are shaped by experience
Locke's ideas, in conjunction with those of Francis Bacon, led to the concept of
Knowledge originates in experience and science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
William James (1842-1910)
Wanted to understand the how and the why of mental processes and behavior
Influenced by Darwin, sought to understand how thinking was adaptive
Believed behavior patterns are repeated because they are successful
Published one of the first Psychology texts
- The Principles of Psychology
Important Ladies
Mary Whiton Calkins
Refused PhD at Harvard
First female president of APA
Margaret Floy Washburn
First female PhD at Cornell
Second female APA president
Dismissed introspection
Believed that it was more scientific to study observable behavior
Roots in empiricism
Behavior is learned through conditioning
Carl Rodgers & Abraham Maslow
Psychodynamic and behavioral approaches were too limiting
People are unique and distinct from animals
People are inherently good
Included the concept of free will
Focused on the impact of environment on human growth potential (actualization)
Jean Piaget & Albert Ellis

Focused on the importance of thoughts and thought processes
Wanted to understand how we perceive, process and remember information
Also studied language
G. Stanley Hall
Student of Wundt
Started the first psychology lab at Johns Hopkins University in 1883
First president of the APA
Studied developmental psychology and was influential in educational psychology
Full transcript