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Child soldiers

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Gerardo Vidal

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of Child soldiers

To Infancy and Beyond Child soldiering By: Gerardo Vidal what Is a Child Soldier? According to UNICEF: "any person below 18 years of age who is or has been recruited or used by an armed force or armed group in any capacity, it does not only refer to a child who is taking or has taken a direct part in hostilities" History of Child soldiers Child soldiers as stated by Lewis D. Eigen in Scriptamus
" Have been a norm throughout history and have been accepted in almost all societies" Child soldiers have been part of history for a long time, we have cheered for them in the theaters, made them part of our religion and culture, and even awarded them with one of our highest medal for their valor while compromising our own human ethics. Religion &
Cultures Through many Generations of Religious beliefs; we have seen child soldiers. Child soldiers is not something that got created over night. King David was a child soldier for the Jewish people when he killed Goliath.Due to this
he is mention in the bible
His words " today I am a man", are recited by 13 year old Jews, when they go through the Bar Mitzvah ceremony. We have been culturally influenced by Child Soldiers
for thousands of years.

The ancient Roman Army would knowingly allow boys under 16 to enlist in the army. The Spartans, ( Greek) started military training at age 7 and from then on they were soldiers.
The Ottoman Turkish Empire used child soldiers who were drafted from all over the empire, to form the Sultan's Personal Elite corps. They were notoriously known for using child soldiers, there's documentation that children as young as 8 entered the Corps.
Even in American culture we have encountered the usage of child soldiers. President Abraham Lincoln signed the act of congress creating the Medal of Honor, On September 16, 1863 Willie Johnson received a medal, he was only 13 years old and was only 5 feet tall. Child soldiers like stated before were also a part of Christianity. In ancient feudal Europe Almost Every Knight had young boys in service as squires and other staff.
Ex. In the times of the Crusades the knight templers and priest that went to the holy land to fight for Christianity, were known widely for taking children along with them to fight. Past History Modern History During WWII the Nazis created the Hitler youth, they were used in tank brigades and were fully equip like adults. They were also use as defenders during the Berlin Siege.
Also the Polish and Russian used Children to defend their nation from the Nazi invation of WWII
The Kamikaze soldiers of Japan also took part with the usage of child soldiers, at times children were put along aside the Kamikaze for suicide missions.
Post WWII the Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka began using children, both boys and girls. They were one of the first groups to begin using children for modern combat. Many terrorist organization like the PLO, LRA, and Al Qaeda mirror the Tamil Tigers and their war strategies. How children become Soldiers: Forced Conscription of Child Soldiers may come in the form of There are two ways in which a child can turn into a combatant; they can either be forced or they may volunteer. Abduction or kidnapping in schools, streets, homes
Sale- either be by slavery, parent or guardian consent the usage of his child for payment
Coercion- usage of force
Harassed or peered pressured to join
Religious or traditional beliefs
Manipulation due to threats, drugs and family stability Self Volunteer combatants Retaliation towards their enemy
Pride of their community or nation
no education
opportunity for employment
escape from oppressive family situation
adventure in serving "the cause"
dream of becoming a hero
having financial responsibility
*Poverty is often cited as the cause of child soldering. Poverty is the single most common characteristic among all child soldiers.
-Who are the most vulnerable?
Children : separated from their parents, living on the streets, minorities, isolated children, growing up in conflict zones. What Children do while they Serve Children either have a main job occupation or they may just be used for the benefit of the group. The actions performed by child soldiers are abductors
robbers,looters
rapist
suicide bombers
human shields
minesweepers
enforcers, bombers, torturers, and executioners
front line combatants
sex slaves, Bush "wives"
spies,
porters, messenger
cooks, guards, servants Why are children Preferred?
-Children are preferred because Why are children Preferred? Cost effective- children are easier to maintain economically ( food, clothing,housing)
Mental Persuasion- children who lack education are easier to brainwash.
Control- children usually create loyalty to leaders and don't question their authority.
Cycle- children can be "shaped" at a young age to continue fighting in their adulthood for the " cause" .
Accessibility- weapons in today's world are maneuverable and easier for children to use. Also children have easier access to small places and to move secretly from locations.
Tactics- children work as a strategy against soldiers who have never experienced battle with children before. States that utilize child
soldiers since 2011: Key:
* National Armed forces
^ Forces associated with the state
" Armed opposition groups * ^ " =Afghanistan
^ = Central African Republic
^ " = Colombia
* ^ " =Cote d' Ivoire
* ^ " = Democratic Republic of the Congo
" = India
^ = Iraq
* = Israel
* ^ " = Libya
" = Mali
* ^ " = Myanmar
" = Pakistan
* ^ " = Philippines
^ " = Thailand
* ^ " = Somalia
* ^ " = Sudan
* " = South Sudan
* = Syria
* ^ " = Yemen
" = Uganda Statistics: Today's estimation of child Soldiers Around the world:
200,000 to 300,000 children are currently serving as soldiers for both rebel groups and government forces in armed conflicts; 100,000 of those fight in Africa
Africa has the largest number of child soldiers.
Soldiers under 18 were reported in 21 armed conflicts in 2002-2007.
40 percent of child soldiers are girls-120,000 Laws pertaining to Child Soldiers : 1959- UN adopts the Declaration of the Child, but no protection for child soldiers offer.
1989- Convention on the rights of the child adopts legal binding instrument to incorporate general social rights. They define a child as anyone under 18.
2000- UN General assembly, with the push of other civil groups, proclaimed that a state shall not compulsorily recruit individuals under the age of 18.
2001- The UN security Council passes Resolution 1379 which urges states to prosecute those who recruit children.
2008- With the help of senators, President Bush signed the CHILD SOLDIER PREVENTION ACT, which restricts the US government's military support to nation that fail to stop recruitment of child soldiers.
2012- President Obama waived the CHILD SOLDIER PREVENTION ACT, and gave military aid to Libya, Yemen, South Sudan, and the Congo. All of theses states recruit children.
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