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Wales - Cymru

Rough guide

Paul van Zeldert

on 20 December 2012

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Transcript of Wales - Cymru

141,306 inhabitants Newport Cardiff, Capital of Wales Swansea 341,054 inhabitants
In PAST: Industry ==> NOW: uptown, modern, vivacious 232,501 inhabitants 1,797 residents
smallest city in the UK

two pilgrimages to St. David's equaled one to Rome Bay and Barrage (land+water activities, visitor attractions) Castle in heart of city Cardiff Central Market (Food lovers' Paradise) Taff Trail (55 miles walking/cycling route, from Brecon to Cardiff) Dylan Thomas Centre - life and work of Swansea's poet) Gower Peninsula - beautiful coastline and beaches; UK's first Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in 1956 National Waterfront Museum - 300 years of Welsh industry and innovation Swansea Grand Theatre ` - glamorous venue Caerleon (Roman site, home of 2nd Augustan Legion, housing 5,000 soldiers and horsemen, with an amphitheatre, baths, shops and temples) Castle - early 14th century at river Usk crossing Fourteen Locks - rising the canal 160 feet in just half a mile Transporter Bridge - part of local highways network, 106 years old The Pier - 1896, restored 1987; one of few Victorian Piers to remain virtually unaltered in design.
Cathedral - dating from 546; most ancient and continuously occupied cathedral site in the UK today 13,725 inhabitants

ancient, historic, Cathedral and University
City; its name derives from the wall (‘Bangor’) built around Deiniol's church
in 525 CE! Bangor Penrhyn Castle - Neo-Norman mansion; completed in 1836, built by Pennant family (sugar and slate traders) St David's St David's Cathedral, dating from 1176 Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Cardiff Swansea Newport Bangor St David's http://wales.gov.uk/topics/cultureandsport/?lang=en (Welsh Government Site)

Remaining pictures:
http://listverse.com/2010/02/26/10-modern-cases-of-linguistic-genocide/ References m i l d • Harsh weather in some upland areas
• Coasts of East Wales more favourable conditions (more sheltered) Primitive humans
living in Wales Saxons push Romano-British
into West and label them
'Walha' = foreigner / stranger Welsh begin to
refer to themselves as
'Y Cymry': Fellow-countrymen Efforts of Normans to
subdue the Welsh extended
over three centuries and more The Tudors end the idea of an
independent 'Wales' which had
existed throughout the medieval period Welsh is an official language
spoken by ± 700,000 people Timeline Britain becomes separated
from European Mainland 225,000 BCE 6,000 BCE 449 CE 1066... 1485-1603 Nowadays Angles and Saxons
arrive in England Dark Ages CULTURAL ASPECTS of WALES

+ More castles per head than anywhere else.
+ Rich heritage of magical and mystical tales, such as Mabinogion and Gelert.
+ Mining practised since ancient times.
+ The Celts have left a lasting mark on the cultural traditions of Wales, e.g. language wise.
+ Welsh is oldest language in Britain dating back possibly 4,000 years. Welsh expressions

Welsh - English
Cymru - Wales
Cymry - Welsh [the people]
Cymraeg - Welsh [the language]
Lloegr - England
Sais - an Englishman
Saeson - English [the people]
Saesneg - English [the language]
Saesneg (adj.) - English-language, English-speaking
Saesnig - English [from England]
Cymru am byth! - Wales for ever!
Y Ddraig Goch ddyry gychwyn - The Red Dragon will show the way (slogan often accompanying the Red Dragon, symbol of Wales)

Twll dîn pob Sais! - Down with the English! (literally ‘an arsehole every Englishman’)

Bore da - Good morning
Prynhawn da - Good afternoon
Noswaith dda - Good evening
Nos da - Goodnight
Helô or Hylô - Hello
Sut mae? (North Welsh) - How are you?
Shw mae? (South Welsh) - How are you?
Croeso - Welcome
Hwyl - Bye
Hwyl am rwan/nawr - Bye for now (North/South)
Dal ati!, Daliwch ati! - Keep at it!, Don’t give up!
Nadolig Llawen - Merry Christmas
Blwyddwyn Newydd Dda - Happy New Year
Penblwydd Hapus - Happy Birthday
Cyfarchion y Tymor - Season’s greetings
Pob lwc - Good luck
Dymuniadau da, Dymuniadau gorau, Pob dymuniad da - Best wishes
Llongyfarchiadau - Congratulations
Cofion cynnes - Yours (at end of letter/mail)
Cariad - Love, Darling
Dw i’n dy garu di - I love you

Hen Wlad fy Nhadau - Land of My Fathers (the Welsh national anthem) Why not to go to Wales ...

Climate - cloudy, wet 'n windy...
Geography - mountains blocking your view...
People - the Welsh being 'strangers', and fond of fighting: castles everywhere...
Language - fear of...
... and finally the danger of all those mines... ... and why you definitely should go to Wales!

Climate - mild ...
Geography - mountains to climb and look down from...
Countryside - national parks, natural beauty...
Recreation - beautiful beaches...
People - the Welsh being 'foreigners', which is pretty interesting...
Language - curiosity for how it sounds...
... and finally ...
its rich cultural heritage: churches, castles, Roman remains, Stone Age hillforts, and much, much more Welsh grammar

- voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ ]
- voiceless nasal stops [m], [n], and [ ]
- voiceless rhotic [r]
- Stress usually falls on the penultimate syllable in polysyllabic words
- word-final unstressed syllable receives higher pitch than the stressed syllable.

- "conjugated prepositions" (prepositions that fuse with personal pronouns that are their object)

- Canonical word order in Welsh: verb–subject–object.

Other feature
- Pronoun doubling, e.g. "his house of him".
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