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Anth111 Spr16 Migration 2
Transcript of Anth111 Spr16 Migration 2
-Bracero Program-- 1942
--attempt to regulate inflow
Immigration & Naturalization Act of 1965
-abolished former quota systems
-emphasized family unification
-wanted to attract skilled laborers
Immigration Reform & Control Act 1986
-expanded Border Control
-way for undocumented workers to change their status
-sanction on employers who hired undocumented workers...kind of...
Illegal Immigration and Immigrant Responsibility Act
-couldn't adjust legal status
--anyone engaged in unauthorized work could be barred from U.S. for 10 years
-expanded ground for deportation of legal migrants
-restricted non-citizen (even legal migrants) access to public resources
"lawmakers are under pressure from business constituents to maintain supplies of low-skilled immigrant labor....lawmakers also under pressure to tighten the labor market and help create job opportunities for U.S. citizen, particularly in times of economic crisis...given these opposing pressures, state policies on immigration that fail to satisfy labor market demands and boost the political capital of lawmakers are adjusted until they do so. This produces immigration policies that appear self-contradictory and ineffectual but that are actually quite effective at maintaining a large and vulnerable undocumented workforce."
In what ways are undocumented migrants vulnerable?
Why do people from the Mexico migrate to the US?
-8 million undocumented workers in U.S.
-contribute $12 Billion each year to state and federal taxes.
--effective tax rate on average is 8%; top 1% of earners have effective rate of 5.4%
-75% pay into social security, although will never draw on.
Split into groups:
-Come up with one question for the class to discuss...
In what ways do migrant workers, even undocumented ones, contribute to the U.S. economy?
What strategies do migrant workers use to maximize their income, while minimizing their costs?
Take on extra work, work longer hours
strategically draw upon stereotype of "hard workers"
Is being a "hard worker" cultural? Is there something about "Mexican culture" that causes this type of work ethic?
In the US- don't realize how wealthy the wealthy actually are....
richest 20% controls 80% of wealth in the US (Norton 2011)
wealth vs income
46.5 Million under poverty line (2013 Census Bureau)