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Unit V: Crisis and Change 1914-1945

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Beth Kromka

on 6 March 2017

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Transcript of Unit V: Crisis and Change 1914-1945

Unit V: Crisis and Change 1914-1945
World War I Begins
World War I
Russian Revolution
End of WWI
Search for Stability
Background to Revolution
The Rise of Lenin
The Bolsheviks were a Marxist party headed by Vladimir Lenin

Under his leadership, they became a party dedicated to violent revolution

Lenin believed that only a revolution would end capitalism in Russia

Bolsheviks Seize Power
During the night of November 6, the Bolsheviks seized power and the provisional government fell apart

The Bolsheviks soon renamed themselves the Communist Party

Lenin signed a treaty with Germany that ended Russian participation in World War I

The surrender was humiliating as the Russians lost a huge amount of territory

Civil War in Russia
Many people were opposed to Communist control

This group consisted of people loyal to the czar, liberals, and conservatives

Triumph of Communists
The Reds were successful in the civil war thanks to the organization of Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky helped build a strong, disciplined army

Also, the Whites had no common goal and therefore never really united

Czar Nicholas II was an autocratic ruler who relied on the army and bureaucracy to hold his regime together

He was increasingly cut-off from events by his wife Alexandria

The heir to the throne, Alexis, had hemophilia, the bleeding disease

Alexandria relied on Grigori Rasputin, an uneducated peasant who claimed to be a holy man

With the czar at the battlefront, Alexandria made most of the decisions for Russia after consulting Rasputin

Rasputin had huge influence over the Russian government

A series of strikes, led by working women, broke out in Petrograd

Many women were protesting the rapid increase in the price of bread

Soon the women were joined by other workers as all factories in the city shut down

Troops were sent in to put disperse the crowd, but joined the protests instead

As Russia experienced a series of military and economic disasters, the Russian people began to call for change

Even conservatives felt something needed to be done

To start, they assassinated Rasputin
On March 12, 1917, the Duma met and established a provisional government

The new government urged the czar to step down which he did on March 15

Between 1918 and 1921, the Communist Red Army was forced to fight a civil war against its opponents called the Whites

By 1920, the major White forces had been defeated

The Communists also used a secret police force to eliminate any opponents

By 1921, the Communists were in total control over the country

Russia had been transformed into a centralized state

Finally, the Communists renamed Russia the Soviet Union

Russia was unprepared for World War I

It was militarily and technologically behind the rest of Europe

Russia had no competent military leaders and the industry was unable to produce the weapons needed to fight the war

Troops were sent to the front without a rifle and told to pick one up from a dead comrade

Due to these factors two million Russian soldiers were killed and another six million wounded between 1914-1916

To gain the support of the people, the Bolsheviks used the slogan, “Peace, Land, Bread!

The royal family was another victim of the civil war

After the czar abdicated, he and his family were taken into captivity

The czar and his entire family were murdered to ensure no monarch would ever control Russia again

Their bodies were put into a mineshaft, acid dumped all over them, and then burned

Last Year of the War
The Peace Settlements
During 1917, Allied offensives met with defeat and the Russians withdrew from the war

On a positive side, the entry of the US gave the Allies a sense of hope

In 1918, American troops would prove vital

With the withdrawal of Russia, Germany could now concentrate all of its efforts on the Western Front

The Germans gambled on one last major offensive to end the war before US troops arrived in large numbers

By April 1918, the Germans were within fifty miles of Paris

Because of the arrival of US troops, the German advance was stopped at the Second Battle of the Marne

The Allies began a steady advance towards Germany

The German commander advised his government that the war was over and they should seek a peace settlement

The Allies were unwilling to make peace with autocratic imperial government

Kaiser William II gave into public pressure, abdicated and left the country

A new democratic republic was created

By November, Germany was fighting alone

Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire, and Austria-Hungary had been knocked out of the war

On November 11, 1918 Germany signed an armistice, an agreement to stop fighting

Representatives from 27 Allied nations met in Paris to work out the peace agreement

US President, Woodrow Wilson, outlined his hopes for peace with his Fourteen Points

The Fourteen Points treated both sides fairly and equally

As a result, many people of Europe hoped the peace settlement would follow Wilson’s plan, but the delegates had other ideas

Complications immediately became obvious

Secret treaties and agreements made before the war had raised hopes for territorial gains

These hopes could not be ignored even though they threatened to cause future conflicts

David Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister, wanted Germany to pay for the war

France’s approach was guided by its desire for national security

Georges Clemenceau wanted Germany stripped of its weapons

He also wanted Germany to pay reparations, payments for damages caused during a war

Germany was not invited to attend the peace conference that was deciding its fate

Russia, a member of the Allied powers, could not attend because it was in the midst of a civil war

Wilson wanted to create the League of Nations, an international organization designed to keep the peace

George and Clemenceau wanted to punish Germany

The Big Four needed to compromise

The final peace settlements were outlined in the Treaty of Versailles

The Allied nations signed separate treaties with the five Central Powers

The treaty dealt with Germany very harshly

Germany had to accept full blame for starting the war

Germany was also ordered to pay $33 billion in reparations

Germany was forced to reduce its military to 100,000 men, cut back its navy, and eliminate its air force

The Rhineland was demilitarized in hopes it would act as a barrier between Germany and France

Finally, Germany was forced to surrender large amounts of territory

Another result of the Treaty of Versailles was the map of Eastern Europe was redrawn

The Austro-Hungarian Empire disappeared

Germany and Russia both lost territory

In all, eight new nations emerged in Europe from the peace settlement

The new boundaries were not drawn along ethnic lines

Almost every Eastern European state contained an ethnic minority

This problem would lead to future conflicts for every country

The Treaty of Versailles created the League of Nations, an idea of Woodrow Wilson

The League of Nations was an international organization designed to keep and maintain peace throughout the world

The US did not join the League of Nations

Congress feared membership would draw the US into another European war

As a result, the League of Nations was virtually powerless

In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire was broken up

Territory that formerly belonged to the Ottomans became mandates of European nations

A mandate is a country that is run by a member of the League of Nations, as they prepare for independence

Over 10 million people died in World War I

The high death toll and the massive destruction undermined the idea of progress

The power of governments over their people increased all through Europe

Freedoms had been taken away in the name of the war effort

The turmoil created by the war and the peace settlement opened the door for future conflicts

Uneasy Peace
The Treaty of Versailles left many nations unhappy

Border disputes in Eastern Europe occurred all the time

Many Germans vowed to revise the Treaty of Versailles

The Great Depression
The period of prosperity ended with the Great Depression

Several European nations experienced economic downturns in the latter portion of the 1920s

However, the major cause rested with the US

Democracy after the War
A number of European states had democratic governments after WWI

Political leaders rewarded women for their wartime contributions by giving them the right to vote

Exceptions were France, Italy, and Switzerland

The League of Nations was created in order to keep peace in Europe

The League of Nations was not very effective at maintaining peace because the US did not join

The failure of the US to join immediately weakened the League

The remaining members could never agree on how to approach problems

The desire for security led the French to demand strict adherence to the Treaty of Versailles

France was adamant that Germany pay the $33 billion in reparations

Germany made the first payment in 1921

The following year,
The German government announced that it was facing financial problems and could no longer pay reparations

French troops were sent into the Ruhr Valley to collect its reparations by operating the German industry in the area

Germany tried to respond by printing more money, but this caused inflation

The German mark soon became worthless

By November of 1923 it took 4.2 trillion marks to equal one US dollar

Economic adversity led to political upheavals

An international commission stepped in to help solve the problems

The Dawes Plan reduced Germany’s reparation payments and set up a payment schedule

The plan also guaranteed a $200 million dollar loan from the US to Germany

A brief period of prosperity followed as Americans began investing in Europe

With prosperity came new diplomacy

Germany joined the League of Nations in 1926

In 1928, sixty three nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact renouncing war

However, promises to not go to war were worthless without a way to enforce them

The prosperity of Europe was built on American loans to Germany

Germany needed the loans to help pay its reparations to France and Britain

American investors began to pull money out of Germany and invest it in the stock market

When the US stock market collapsed, Americans panicked and pulled more money out of Germany

The Great Depression began in the US due to overproduction and falling demand of goods

The economic collapse and withdrawals in the US plunged Europe into a Depression as well

One in four British workers were jobless

6 million Germans were unemployed

The homeless and unemployed filled the streets

Governments did not know how to deal with the Depression and their attempts only made it worse

This would have serious political effects in the future

There was a renewed interest in Marxist doctrine

Communism became more popular, especially among the workers and intellectuals

Germany was ruled by the Weimar Republic, but it was plagued with problems

The government seemed incapable of solving the economic problems plaguing Germany

More and more Germans began following political parties and leaders that were hostile towards the republic

After the defeat of Germany, France became the strongest power on the continent

France needed to rebuild areas destroyed by the war, but faced financial problems

France faced political chaos during the Depression

During WWI, Britain lost many of the markets for its goods to the US and Japan

Great Britain modernized its outdated factories in response and soon experienced limited prosperity

During the Depression a Conservative government came to power and slowly started to pull the country towards recovery

US production fell 50% during the Great Depression

Franklin Roosevelt was elected president and instituted his New Deal to help the US recover from the Depression

Under the New Deal, government programs were created to put people back to work

Nationalism Around the World
Struggle in Latin America
In the early 1900s the economies in Latin America were booming due to exports to industrialized countries

Some Latin American countries had stable, democratic governments, but the majority were controlled by military dictators

Often, the benefits of the economy were kept by the dictators

Nationalism at Work
Following World War I, the demand for exports from Latin America decreased

A tide of economic nationalism swept through the country

People wanted to develop economies for their countries that were not dependent on foreign, industrialized countries

Factories were set up and the government raised tariffs as well as invested in the new businesses

However, unequal distribution of the wealth slowed economic development

Africa and the Middle East
Arab Nationalism
Many Arabs in the Middle East felt betrayed that the Western Powers dismantled the Ottoman Empire after WWI

Many had hoped to gain independence after the war only to be made mandates

Pan Arabism grew, a nationalist movement based on shared Arab heritage

India Seeks Self-Rule
During WWI more than one million Indian soldiers served in the British army

Like other colonial troops, they hoped to gain greater control or self-government

During the 1920s a new leader emerged to unite and lead Indians on an independence movement

The Great Depression triggered political changes in Latin America

In the midst of economic crisis, authoritarian governments came to power in Latin America

People hoped that these governments could control, direct, and protect the economy of the country better

Effects of Latin American Nationalism
-Developed their own industries to reduce dependence on foreign countries

-Factories were opened

-Governments passed tariffs and supported industry


-Loss of faith in liberal and European style governments

-Authoritarian governments rose to power

-Rejection of European influences

-A style of native and Western traditions combined, emerged

During WWI, many Africans fought for the European country they were a colony of

Colonial troops hoped that fighting in WWI would bring independence or more rights for their countries

After the war, the situation remained the same or got worse

Africans began to call for an end to imperialist rule and the colonial system

Between 1910 and 1940, whites strengthened their control in South Africa

A system of racial segregation was instituted to help them achieve economic, political, and social superiority

Better paying jobs went to whites while blacks were forced into low-paying, less-skilled work

Blacks also had to carry passes at all times and were evicted from the best lands

After 1948, apartheid, a policy of rigid segregation, became law in South Africa

During the 1920s, Pan Africanism, a movement calling for the unity of Africans around the world, flourished

Speeches and meetings were held calling for independence

However, only Egypt gained its independence

Immense changes came to the Middle East as well

The Ottoman Empire was close to falling, and Europeans had made mandates of Ottoman lands in the Middle East

However, the Turks continued to resist Western control and fought to modernize

A major center of turmoil was in the British mandate of Palestine

In Palestine, Arab nationalists faced Jewish nationalists as each group tried to claim the same territory as their homeland

During WWI, Europeans made several political moves that only confounded the problem

First, they promised Arabs their own kingdoms, including Palestine, for helping defeat the Central Powers

In an attempt to win the support of European Jews, the British issued the Balfour Declaration

In the Balfour Declaration, the British supported a Jewish homeland in Palestine

Thus, the stage was set for conflicts between Arabs and Jews over Palestine that continue to this day

Mohandas Gandhi’s main weapon against injustice was non-violent resistance

He believed that non-violence would result in an end to injustice

Gandhi also believed in civil disobedience, the refusal to obey unjust laws

During the 1920s and 1930s Gandhi launched a series of nonviolent actions against British rule

He called for Indians to boycott, or refuse to buy British goods

Gandhi also organized a salt march and was arrested

The British responded to worldwide criticism by giving India some political power

In 1939, a new world war exploded

Britain outraged Indian leaders by postponing independence an dragging India into WWII

Millions protested and were thrown in jail, but millions of others did help the British

Rise of Dictators
Rise of Militaristic Japan
During the Meiji Restoration, Japan modeled itself after the Western world

As a result,
Japan modernized and industrialized very rapidly

With the coming of the Great Depression came a call to return to Japan’s traditional ways

Some began to call for Japan to use its strength to dominate Asia and meet its economic needs

Rise of Dictators
A new form of dictatorship, called totalitarianism, emerged in Europe

A totalitarian state is a government that controls the political, social, economical, intellectual, and cultural lives if its citizens

These new regimes pushed the power of the central states beyond what it had been in the past

Forming the Chinese Republic
Sun Yixian led revolts that ended the 268 year old Qing Dynasty

By 1912, China was declared a republic

Revolutions and assassinations marked the early years of the republic

Powerful warlords ruled most of the country with their imperial armies

Growth of Chinese Communism
After being chased and attacked by Nationalist forces, communists fled over 100,000 miles to the north in what became known as the Long March

During the Long March a young man named Mao Zedong established himself as a leader of China’s communists

Rise of Dictators
Totalitarian states wanted to control the minds and hearts of its subjects

To achieve this, they used massive amounts of propaganda and modern technologies

Totalitarian states were led by a single leader or a single party and most rights and freedoms were abolished

The entire society was expected to work towards achieving an ultimate goal, even if it was war

Fascism in Italy
In the early 1920s Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy

Mussolini began his political career as a socialist, but changed his beliefs following WWI

Mussolini began a new political ideology called fascism

Authoritarian States in the West
A number of governments in the Western world were authoritarian

In many of the European states, democracy was replaced with authoritarian governments

Groups of people looked to the old system of government when times were bad

In Eastern Europe, only Czechoslovakia maintained its democracy

In the early 20th century, Japanese leaders began to have a difficult time finding a source of raw materials

This problem coupled with those of the Depression led to people demanding Japan become a militaristic state

Japanese military leaders gained power in the government

A group of officers invaded Manchuria, a portion of China, without government approval in 1931

Within a short time, all of Manchuria was under Japanese control

The Japanese government opposed the attack, but the people supported it

Western nations, especially the US, began to protest Japanese actions

Soon Hideki Tojo and other military officers controlled the government

Emperor Hirohito refused to oppose the action of the military leaders out of fear of the monarchy being abolished

Japanese society was put on a wartime status
A draft was instituted
Culture was purged of all Western influence

The Nationalists wanted to establish a strong central government and asked for help from the west

Only the Soviet Union responded by sending advisers to build a modern Chinese army

Chiang Kai-shek took control of the Nationalists and made their army stronger

He soon defeated the warlords of China

Chiang’s troops attacked the communist stronghold at Shanghai
He arrested then executed a large number of communists

Believing that the communists were no longer a threat, Chiang established the Nationalist government

The Nationalists set up a strong, central government with Chiang as a virtual dictator

Though he made some improvements, he failed to end the suffering of China’s peasants

By July 1921 intellectuals had formed the Chinese Communist Party

They were inspired by the Russian Revolution and the ideas of Marx and Lenin

When the Communist party grew too large for Chiang Kai-shek, he undertook several large-scale military operations to eliminate Communism for good

The Communists who survived the first purge fled south

Mao listened to the peasants and encouraged them to support the communist revolution

At first they were suspicious of the outsiders and did not trust the Communists

But when the peasants saw the Communists were listening and trying to help, they joined and supported the revolution

Many joined the Communist Red Army, while others provided information on the Nationalist troops

With the help of the peasants, the Communists rebuilt their forces

In addition, there was a growing threat from the imperialist Japanese

Many people felt that Chiang Kai-shek should deal with the Japanese instead of fighting the other Chinese

Support for communism grew among those who believed the true enemy was the Japanese

The conflict between the Nationalists and the Communists would lead to a civil war in China

Fascism glorifies the state above the individual and any opposition to the leader is oppressed

Like other nations, Italy suffered during the Great Depression

People began to fear a communist revolution like what occurred in Russia

Mussolini formed bands of followers called Blackshirts

The Blackshirts used violence to break up strikes and attacked socialists

The middle class and the property owners began to support Mussolini

Mussolini also played the people’s nationalistic feelings to gain more support

After threatening to march on Rome, Mussolini was appointed prime minister of Italy

Once in power, Mussolini used his position to make himself a dictator

The rights of the people were suppressed

All oppositional parties were outlawed

Mussolini took the title Il Duce, the leader

Mussolini created a secret police to watch people’s activities and enforce his policies

Media and new organizations were formed to promote fascism around Italy

Italian fascists promised much, but delivered very little

As a result, they were soon overshadowed by another fascist state

Democracy failed to survive in Spain as well

A bloody civil war replaced Spanish democracy with fascism

During the war, German troops were sent to the aid of the fascist rebels

The German army used the war to test new tactics it would soon release on Europe

Hitler and His Views
Adolf Hitler was born in Austria on April 20, 1889

He failed out of school and went to Vienna to try and get into an art school

Hitler was rejected by the school, but stayed in Vienna and developed the ideas he held the rest of his life

Rise of Nazism
While in prison,
Hitler realized the Nazis needed to gain power legally

This meant that the Nazi party needed to become a mass political party that could compete with the other parties

Once out of prison, Hitler expanded the Nazi party through all of Germany

By 1932 the Nazi party was the largest in the German Reichstag

Victory of Nazism
The Nazi State
Hitler wanted to develop an Aryan racial state to dominate all of Europe

The Nazis believed they were the leaders of the Aryans and would build another empire like the Romans to dominate Europe

It was their goal to create a Third Reich in Germany

To achieve this, Hitler needed the involvement of the German people

At the core of Hitler’s beliefs was racism, especially against Jews

Hitler was also extremely nationalistic

Hitler served four years in the German army during WWI

After the war, Hitler stayed in Germany and decided to enter politics

In 1919, Hitler joined the small German Worker’s Party

By 1921, Hitler was the head of the Nazi party

Within two years, the Nazi party had over 55,000 people with 15,000 in the Brownshirts

The Brownshirts were the military branch of the Nazi party

Hitler and his followers staged an uprising against the Weimar Republic

The uprising was quickly crushed

Hitler was sent to prison where he wrote the book Mein Kampf

Mein Kampf was full of nationalism, racism, and anticommunism

Mein Kapmf also outline the ideas of Social Darwinsim

Hitler believed that the superior nations had the right to lebensraum, or living space, gained through expansion

It also upheld the idea that superior individuals had the right to gain authoritarian leadership over the masses

Germany’s economic problems were one reason for the rise of the Nazis

Hitler promised to create a new Germany

His appeals to national pride, honor, and tradition stuck with many listeners

Hitler slowly gained support by giving speeches at huge rallies all across Germany

More and more of the aristocrats, industrial leaders, and military officers were looking towards Hitler

Under mass pressure, the president of Germany appointed Hitler chancellor

Once in power, Hitler moved to gain complete control over Germany

The Reichstag passed the Enabling Act giving the government the power to ignore the constitution for four years while dealing with Germany’s problems

With the Enabling Act, Hitler became a dictator that was not responsible to the president or the Reichstag

With this new power, the Nazis moved quickly to bring all institutions under German control

The civil service was purged of Jews and democratic elements

Large prison camps, called concentration camps, were set up for people opposed to the Nazis

Trade unions were dissolved

All political parties except the Nazis were abolished

In seven months, Hitler had established the foundation for a totalitarian state

When the president died, the office was abolished

Hitler became the sole ruler of Germany and took the title der Fuhrer

The Nazis used terror and repression to enforce their will

The Schutzstaffen, or the SS, were the muscle behind Hitler’s orders

Originally, the SS were Hitler’s personal bodyguards

Under the direction of Heinrich Himmler, the SS controlled the secret police as well as the regular police forces

Hitler used public works projects to put people back to work and end the depression

However, the key to ending the Great Depression in Germany was a massive rearmament program

By 1937, only 500,000 Germans were unemployed

The Nazis success at ending the Depression drew more people to support them

Hitler staged mass demonstrations and spectacles

These meetings were used to evoke mass enthusiasm, excitement, and support for the Nazis

The Nazi party brought religion and education in Germany under their control

Organizations were formed to teach Nazi ideals to everyone

To the Nazis, women played an important role in building an Aryan state

The Nazis believed that men were destined to be warriors

The women were expected to be mothers and produce more Aryans

A violent phase of the Nazis anti-Semitism began in November of 1938

Nazis burned synagogues and destroyed thousands of Jewish homes and businesses during Kristallnacht

At least one hundred Jews were killed and 30,000 males were rounded up and sent to concentration camps

Jews were barred from all public buildings, forced to clean up the damage from Kristallnacht, and encouraged to emigrate from Germany

The Nazi Party reflected strong anti-Semitic beliefs

Once in power, they transferred the ideas into policies

The Nuremburg Laws excluded Jews from government, required them to wear a yellow star, and carry identification cards

New Era in the Soviet Union
Lenin and the Soviet Union were struggling to survive in the 1920s

The Soviet Union experienced agricultural failures and industrial collapse

Factory output was only 20% of what it had been during 1913

Soviet farmers were producing less grain then they had been prior to World War I

Famine killed over 5 million people in the Soviet Union

The Five Year Plan
When the government efforts failed to get the peasants to join collective farms, the people were forced to accept the new policy

Those farmers who refused to join a collective were executed or exiled

In this manner, About 90% of the productive farmland was turned into collectives

New Era in the Soviet Union
Collectivization was done at a tremendous cost

Widespread famine swept Russia as 10 million peasants died in one year

Despite this failure, the Five-Year Plan did help the Soviet economy grow

As a result, A second Five Year Plan went into effect in 1933 and was even broader

The government focused on expanding heavy industry, especially military production

As a result, less and less consumer goods were produced and food became scarcer

Stalin's Dictatorship
Stalin’s dictatorship grew worse with time and his desire to control everything led to the Great Purge

He began a purge of the Communist Party and executed anyone suspected of being disloyal to him, including old Bolshevik party members

It appeared the power was balanced, but in reality it was held by the Politburo of the Communist Party

Stalin strengthened his control over the government as well

Those who resisted were sent to forced labor camps in Siberia

Stalin's Dictatorship
The property of the Orthodox Church was seized
Churches and Jewish houses of worship were destroyed or converted to public buildings
Many ministers, priests, and rabbis were imprisoned or executed

The work of artists, writers, and musicians came under government censorship
Many had to produce works of propaganda for the Communist government or be exiled or executed

Draw a Venn Diagram of Hitler vs. Stalin answer and the following questions. Each circle should have at least three points.

1. What impact did Hitler have on Germany before WWII?

2. What impact did Stalin have on the Soviet Union before WWII?

3. Of the two dictators, which would you rather live under? Why?
The Soviet people were calling for an end to Lenin’s control

Lenin responded by instituting his New Economic Policy (NEP)

Under the NEP, farmers could sell excess produce and small companies could be privately owned

Major industry, still remained in government control and the economy slowly recovered

Soviet agriculture also made important changes during this period

During the revolution, farms and land had been seized form the wealthy landowners and given to the peasants

The government tried to get the peasants to form collective farms

Under collectivization, the land was pooled together into large farms where everyone worked together and shared the scarce modern machinery

With Lenin’s death in 1924, a power struggle began among communist leaders

Leon Trotsky wanted to end the NEP and start communist revolutions around the world

Another group wanted to focus on building a strong communist state within the Soviet Union and continue the NEP

Joseph Stalin emerged from the struggle as the new leader of the Soviet Union

Once in power, he eliminated old revolutionary leaders, including Trotsky, and established a powerful dictatorship

Stalin believed the economy was not growing enough under Lenin’s plan

Stalin ended the NEP and began his own economic programs

In 1928 Stalin’s government released its first Five-Year Plan

Under Stalin’s Five-Year Plan the Soviet Union moved from an agricultural society to an industrial one

The plan quadrupled the production of heavy machinery and doubled oil output

Wages and living conditions declined as the Soviet Union tried to move forward

The plans also called for the collectivization of agriculture

The collective farms were required to produce enough food to feed all of the Soviet Union and produce a surplus

The surplus would be sold to buy new machinery that would help advance the growth of the Soviet Union

Peasants strongly resisted Stalin’s programs, especially the collectivization

Under Stalin the Soviet people were ruled by fear

People had to obey the demands of the Communist Party or face imprisonment or death

Eventually the purge was expanded to the general population
Intimidation, brutality, and public trials were used

It is estimated that by 1939 more than 8 million people had been arrested, exiled, or executed

Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili
World War II Begins
German Path to War
Hitler believed that Germany was destined to be a great power

To gain that status, Germany needed more land to support a larger population

Hitler indicated in the 1920s that Germany would find lebensraum in the Soviet Union

Once conquered, German peasants would settle in the new territory while the Slavic people would be used as slave labor to build the Third Reich

Japanese Path to War
Japanese troops had seized Manchuria and the natural resources it contained

Japan withdrew its membership from the League of Nations after that organization protested Japanese actions

Clashes between Chinese and Japanese troops broke out as Japan began to expand into Northern China

Protests against Japanese actions increased

Hitler rebuilt the German air force and increased the size of the German army from 100,000 to 550,000

Both moves were in violation of the Treaty of Versailles

France, Great Britain, and Italy condemned the actions, but were distracted by their own problems and did nothing

Hitler was convinced that the Western powers had no intentions of enforcing the Treaty of Versailles

Hitler ordered troops into the German Rhineland, an area that had been demilitarized after WWI

France had the right to use military force against Germany, but would not act without support from the British

The British, however, did not support the use of force

The British viewed the occupation of the Rhineland as acceptable

Great Britain began a policy of appeasement

Appeasement is a policy where Europeans gave into the demands of an aggressor in order to maintain peace

Meanwhile, Germany gained new allies

Hitler and Mussolini allied their countries into the Rome-Berlin Axis

A month later, Japan and Germany signed an anti-communist alliance

Germany, Italy, and Japan became the Axis powers

By 1937, Germany was once again a world power

Hitler was convinced that neither France or Great Britain would provide much opposition to his plans

Hitler threatened Austria with invasion to get the Austrian chancellor to appoint Nazis in charge of the government

The new government promptly invited German troops to enter Austria

They said they needed help maintaining law and order

One day later,
Hitler annexed Austria

The Treaty of Versailles strictly prohibited such an alliance, but the League of Nations did nothing

Hitler secretly planned to invade the Soviet Union anyway, so his promises to Stalin were worthless

However, Hitler now was capable of invading Poland

On September 1, 1939 German troops invaded Poland starting WWII

Two days later, France and Britain declared war on Germany

Hitler demanded that a portion of Czechoslovakia called the Sudetenland be returned to Germany

He said he would be willing to risk world war in order to achieve his goal

The Western powers called for a hasty conference in the city of Munich

British, French, and Italian representatives gave into all of Hitler’s demands

German troops entered the Sudetenland while the Czechs, abandoned by it allies, stood by helplessly

The Munich Conference was the high point of Western appeasement

British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, returned and proclaimed he had achieved “peace in our time”

Hitler had promised that he did not want anymore territory

Like many people, Chamberlain believed Hitler’s promises

Hitler was now convinced more than ever that the Western democracies were weak and would not fight

In early 1939, Hitler ordered German troops into Czechoslovakia

Abandoned by all of its allies, Czechoslovakia fell into German control

At last, the Western powers reacted

The Western powers realized that Hitler’s promises were worthless

When Hitler began to demand the Polish port of Danzig, Great Britain vowed to protect Poland if a war broke out

The British and the French were trying to negotiate an alliance with Stalin and the Soviet Union

Hitler secretly was talking with Stalin as well

Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact vowing to remain neutral if the other went to war

News of this alliance shocked the world

Hitler and Stalin also secretly agreed to divide up Poland

Japan looked to Southeast Asia for the raw materials needed to fuel its war machine

Such a move, however, would risk a war with European colonial powers and the US

With the outbreak of war in Europe, Japan moved into the region

The US objected and warned Japan it would apply economic sanctions

Japan needed the oil and scrap metal from the US and viewed the sanctions as a threat to their long-term goals

When all trade with the US ended, Japan decided to launch a surprise attack

Pearl Harbor
The struggle against the Axis powers took another important turn in December of 1941

Events in the Pacific drew the United States into World War II

Japanese aggression in the Pacific continued

Japanese armies pushed further into China, although the Chinese were bitterly resisting

Early on during the European war, the Japanese saw a chance to extend control over Southeast Asia

When the Netherlands and France fell, the Japanese forced control over the Dutch East Indies and French Indochina

Japanese Aggression in the Pacific
Japan joined the Axis Powers in September

Signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union

American Entry to the War
On December 7, 1941 the Japanese launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor and the U.S. Pacific Fleet

They hoped to strike such a severe blow that the U.S. would not be able to fight in the Pacific

The U.S. responded to Japanese aggression in three ways

Diplomatically protested the Japanese actions
Provided assistance to the Chinese forces
Cut off oil and scrap metal being sold to the Japanese

The Japanese now became eager to capture the Dutch oilfields in the East Indies

When they fell, only the American-held Philippine Islands and Hawaiian Islands stood in the way of Japanese domination of the Pacific

The U.S., in response to increased Japanese aggression, moved their Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Hawaii

An even more militaristic government came into power in Japan under Premier Hideki Tojo

The new government realized their most-dangerous enemy was the United States

They believed their best chance at victory was to knock out the U.S. Pacific Fleet

Japanese commanders began planning a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and the U.S. Pacific Fleet

American dead totaled more than 2,400

The U.S. air craft carriers, the main target of the Japanese, were not at Pearl Harbor

The shipyards and oil refineries were also undamaged

These enabled the U.S. to repair the damaged fleet faster than the Japanese had thought possible.

On December 8, Roosevelt addressed Congress and the nation

Following the speech Congress declared war on Japan

Three days later Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.

WWII in Europe: 1939-1942
Hitler stunned the world with speed of the German attack on Poland

German blitzkrieg, lightning war, used speed and maneuverability to overwhelm the enemy

Blitzkrieg was a combination of attacks by tank units, infantry units, and air planes

The Soviets invaded Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania

Soviet troops also attacked Finland

The Finns appealed to the League of Nations, who could do nothing

The Finns surrendered to the Soviets in March 1940

Hitler unleashed blitzkrieg on Denmark and Norway

Both countries fell to the Germans in less than a month

When they fell, the British now realized the Germans were an immediate threat to their safety

Hitler began to prepare to invade England

In order for the invasion to be successful, the German Luftwaffe would need to take out the Royal Air Force (RAF)

At the beginning of August 1940, the German Luftwaffe began bombing British military stations in England

The British fought back, but were severely outnumbered

The Germans accidentally bombed a portion of London that contained civilians one night

The British retaliated by bombing Berlin

Hitler then shifted tactics from bombing military targets to civilian ones

With the pressure off the RAF, they were able to rebuild their air strength

Hitler shifted the invasion forces destined for England to Poland

Hitler believed the Soviet army was weak and planned to invade the Soviet Union

The invasion was scheduled for the spring of 1941, but German troops needed to be sent into the Balkans to help Mussolini

Along the way, Hitler added Greece and Yugoslavia to his empire

The Soviet Union responded to the invasion the same way they had to Napoleon’s

They waited for the Russian winter to arrive and burned everything as they retreated

When the winter hit, the German troops had no winter clothing or shelter and were running low on supplies

A counterattack drove the Germans back from the two cities, marking the first time they had been stopped on land

As winter approached, the German commander asked Hitler to allow him to retreat

Hitler refused and the battle continued

The trapped Germans had no food or supplies and many froze or starved to death

The Allied war effort received another boost when the US entered the war

The US remained neutral at the beginning of the war, but the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought them into WWII

The Allied powers agreed to defeat the Germans first, then concentrate on Japan

Blitzkrieg quickly overwhelmed the outdated Polish forces before the French and British could arrive

As the Germans attacked western Poland, Soviet troops attacked from the east

In less than a month, Poland fell to the invaders

In May 1940, Winston Churchill replaced Chamberlain as Prime Minister

He had been one of the few to speak out against appeasement in the 1930s

Hitler meanwhile continued to attack

Germans forces moved into the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg

By the end of May, all three surrendered

The French expected a stationary war like WWI

Most of the French defenses were around the Maginot Line

The Germans simply went through the Ardennes forest and around the French lines

Paris fell to German troops, and France soon surrendered by June 1940

Hitler’s blitzkrieg tactics allowed Germany to takeover much of Europe by 1940

Only Great Britain remained at war

Still, French who remained in France took their resistance underground

Similar groups formed in other countries captured by the Germans

They fought the Germans through acts of sabotage such as blowing up bridges, wrecking trains, and cutting communication lines

The RAF began inflicting severe damage on the German Luftwaffe

At the end of September 1941, Hitler postponed the invasion of Britain

The Battle of Britain marked the first time Germany had been stopped

German troops invaded the Soviet Union in June of 1941

The massive attack stretched along a front nearly 2,000 miles long

German troops swept through the Soviet Union quickly

By November, German troops besieged the cities of Leningrad and Moscow

In the spring of 1942, Hitler ordered a new offensive in the south in hopes of capturing the Russian oil fields

To protect the troops making the southern attack, another German army was to capture the city of Stalingrad

Stalin ordered the city with his name be held at all costs

Hitler made the capture of Stalingrad the main objective of the southern offensive

The long and bloody battle of Stalingrad had begun

The Battle of Stalingrad was very long and brutal

In the streets of the city, the Germans could not use blitzkrieg

The Soviets fiercely defended the city, fighting from house to house

In February of 1943, the remaining German troops surrendered

Both sides had suffered heavily

With the defeat at Stalingrad, Hitler’s hope of conquering the Soviet Union ended

The Holocaust
Early Persecution
Anti-Semitism, the hatred of Jews, was a central part of Nazi ideology

Laws were passed limiting Jews’ rights and freedoms

They limited access to jobs and education

Jews were barred from public places and lost their businesses

As Nazi leadership deliberated on how to solve the Jewish problem, ghettos were created in major cities

Ghettos were portions of a city where Nazis concentrated a large population of Jews

The intention was to isolate the Jews from the rest of the population

Most were intended to be temporary

Mobile Killing Squads
With the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, Hitler ordered mobile killing squads to follow the German army

The killing squads were ordered to execute any Jews and communists caught behind German lines

The executions were carried out close to the towns were the Jews lived

Most victims were shot, usually after digging their own graves

Concentration Camps
Concentration camps were first used for forced labor

The SS established camps close to factories and then goods sold throughout the German Reich

The early camps housed political prisoners, resistance groups, and those deemed racially inferior

Death Camps
After the Wannsee Conference, the Nazis established killing centers to carry out the mass executions

The death camps existed solely for the destruction of the Jewish population

The first was Chelmno in Poland

Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and Auschwitz opened soon after

Medical Experiments
Jews were also used by Nazi doctors for medical experiments

Jews were the largest group persecuted during the Holocaust, but they were not the only ones

Other victims of the Holocaust include:
-Communists/Socialists -Union leaders
-Political Prisoners -Roma (gypsies)
-Slavic peoples -Soviet POWs
-Jehovah’s Witnesses -Homosexuals
-Mentally/Physically Disabled

All told, the
Nazis killed around 8 million people

The Nuremburg Laws took citizenship away from Jews in Germany

Jews were no longer allowed to vote and could not hold public office

Jewish officers were kicked out of the military

The laws also defined who was considered Jewish
3 of 4 grandparents were Jewish
Practiced Judaism sometime in their life
Former Jews who converted to Christianity
The Holocaust did not begin with the execution of the Jews

The Nazi’s first mass murders were carried out against the mentally and physically disabled

The Nazis began the executions in hopes of purifying the Aryan race

Doctors and parents were encouraged to admit children who exhibited signs of a disability to special clinics

The clinics were really execution sites and the program was expanded to include all ages

The first ghetto was established in Warsaw, Poland, but the Nazi’s would create thousands more

Conditions inside a ghetto were terrible

Hundreds of thousands of Jews were crammed into small portions of the cities

Once inside, Jews were forced to wear an armband identifying themselves

Ghettos were surrounded by walls to isolate the Jews from the rest of the city

Very little food and water was provided to the people in the ghettos

Medical care and supplies were nonexistent

In the winter, nothing was provided for heat

Initially, the Einsatzgruppen shot only Jewish men

Women and children began to be executed later

Victims were buried in mass graves once the executions began to be carried out in centralized locations

Eventually, mobile gas chambers were utilized

Life inside a concentration camp was terrible

Tattoos were placed on the workers for identification purposes

Prisoners faced starvation, filth, and disease

Hitler and other high ranking Nazis met at the Wannsee Conference in January 1942

They hoped to come up with an answer to the “Jewish question”

The Nazis decided upon the Final Solution at the Wannsee Conference

The Final Solution called for the mass execution of all European Jews

Jews began to be transported to the death camps from all portions of Europe

Most transportation to the death camps was on crammed railroad cars

Upon arrival, SS officers would select a few for specific work details

Most Jews were immediately executed upon arrival to the death camps

They were told to report to a showering area to be cleaned and deloused before going into the camp

Jews were forced to undress and make their way to the showers

The showers were really gas chambers

Once inside, SS guards poured Zyklon B gas pellets into the chambers

Most people died within twenty minutes

Auschwitz executed 6,000 people a day

3 million Jews were murdered in the death camps

The SS considered the death camps top-secret and worked to cover up the executions

The bodies of their victims were taken to giant ovens to be burned

The grounds of the death camps were landscaped or camouflaged to keep the murders secret

Karl Brandt
During World War II, Nazi doctors conducted as many as 30 different types of experiments on concentration-camp inmates. They performed these studies without the consent of the victims, who suffered indescribable pain, mutilation, permanent disability, or in many cases death as a result. At the Nuremberg "doctor's trial," which brought 23 German doctors to trial immediately after the war, prosecutors found 15 defendants guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity; seven were hung. Here are some of the most notorious experiments:
High altitude
Bone, muscle, and joint transplantation
Artificial insemination
Holocaust Resistance
Jewish Resistance
Jews resisted Nazi oppression in a variety of ways

Organized resistance was the most forceful form of opposition

Jews offered armed resistance in over 100 ghettos in Poland and the Soviet Union

Non-Jewish Resistance
Death Marches
During the summer of 1944, the Soviets began liberating eastern European nations

SS leader Heinrich Himmler ordered the prisoners of all camps to move to the interior of the German Reich beginning the Death Marches

The movement of prisoners was to take place for three reasons:
SS didn’t want living proof of atrocities
Continued slave labor for armament industries
Use as possible hostages during peace talks

Jews living in the Warsaw ghetto rose in armed revolt

Rumors spread that they would be sent to Treblinka to be executed

The SS moved in to begin rounding them up to transport them to the camp

Jews attacked the SS soldiers and tanks

The Germans were surprised, but ended the fighting in a few days

It took nearly a month until all resistance was wiped out in the Warsaw ghetto and the inhabitants were deported

The leaders of the uprising were shot and the ghetto destroyed

Others escaped the ghettos by hiding in the forests

There, Jews formed partisan units

The partisans harassed the Germans by carrying out ambushes and acts of sabotage

Jews also rebelled against the Nazis in three death camps

Prisoners at Treblinka and Sobibor attacked and killed their guards

The Germans killed many of the prisoners during the attack or shortly after by hunting the escapees down

Prisoners at Auschwitz mutinied and attempted to blow up the crematorium

Jewish resistance also took the form of cultural or spiritual resistance

As the Nazis tried to wipe them out, Jews tried to preserve their heritage

Jewish holidays were celebrated in the ghettos and camps

They also continued to educate their children in Jewish beliefs and customs

Most of the evacuations were carried out by train

However, as the Allies approached the German border, the SS began evacuating prisoners on foot

SS guards had orders to kill any prisoners who could no longer walk

During the winter, thousands of prisoners died of exposure, starvation, and exhaustion

As the Allies moved across Europe, they began to encounter thousands of camps and prisoners

The Soviets were the first to liberate a major camp as they cleared Poland

The Nazis tried to hide the evidence by demolishing the camp, but the Soviets advanced too quickly

The Soviets would go on to liberate Treblinka, Sobibor, and Auschwitz

In most cases the SS evacuated the prisoners before the Allies liberated the camps

Still, the Allies did find proof of the horrors of the Holocaust

Hundreds of emaciated, but alive, prisoners were left behind

Warehouses full of personal belongings were also left intact

Liberation exposed the horrors of the Holocaust to the Allies and the world

Disease remained a constant threat

Many of the camps were burned to prevent epidemics

Survivors faced a long, difficult road to recovery

Some Europeans who were not Jewish attempted to assist those who were being persecuted

Many families hid Jewish children, often at the risk of death

Others attempted to smuggle Jews to safety

The most successful attempt occurred in Denmark where fishermen transported over 7,000 Jews to neutral Sweden

WWII in Europe: 1942-1945
Last Years of the War
The German Afrika Korps, under Erwin Rommel were advancing in Egypt

They hoped to cut the Suez Canal and deny the British men and supplies

British forces stopped Rommel’s troops at the Battle of El Alamein

The Afrika Korps steadily retreated towards Tunisia

Planning the Invasion
It was clear another, large invasion of Europe was needed to open a second front

Planning began for Operation Overlord, the cross-channel invasion of Northern France a year before it actually occurred

Eisenhower and officers from every Allied nation began planning the invasion

German Preparations
The Germans knew the Allies were planning a cross-channel invasion, they just didn’t know where

General Rommel was given the job of preparing the French coast for the coming attack

He immediately began building the Atlantic Wall

Victory in Europe
On June 6, 1944 Allied troops under the command of Dwight Eisenhower landed in Normandy, France

US forces quickly captured Utah beach while British and Canadian troops captured Sword, Gold, and Juno beaches

However, a problem was developing at Omaha beach

American forces first saw action in Africa

They trapped the Germans between themselves and the British

The Afirka Korps was forced to surrender by May of 1943

Stalin then began to demand the Allied open up a second front in Europe to lessen the pressure on the Soviet Union

Churchill suggested attacking the “soft underbelly of the Axis”-through Italy and the Balkans

U.S. generals wanted a cross-channel invasion into Northern France

Churchill, opposed a cross-channel invasion and the U.S. opposed an attack into Italy

The U.S. finally agreed, as long as Churchill promised an invasion of France for 1944

Allied troops and successfully invaded Sicily and were marching their way up the Italian peninsula

Mussolini was captured and executed by his own people

The Italians were knocked out of the war

However, the Allied advance hit severe resistance around Rome and the attack slowed

The Allied drive up the Italian Peninsula was going very slowly

The Germans were putting up a fierce resistance around Rome and along the Gustav Line

At the same time, Stalin was calling for an increase in Allied operations in the west to take pressure of his Soviet Army

The commanders selected Normandy, France for the invasion

Five beaches were picked to land troops

The commanders also designated an entire operation designed to fool the Germans

They successfully convinced many German officers that the invasion would land at the Pas de Calais

To do so, they invented fake armies and used props to fool German observation planes

If the US troops on Omaha couldn’t take the beach the entire invasion would fail

After hours of bloody fighting, US troops finally managed to get off Omaha beach

Within three months, the Allies landed two million soldiers and 500,000 vehicles in France

The force began pushing inland

By August, 1945 the Allies had recaptured Paris

Now they faced the heavily defended Siegfried Line on the western edge of Germany

Several weeks after D-Day, the Soviets began a major offensive against the Germans in the East

By the end of 1944 they had taken Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Romania, and Bulgaria

After five weeks American forces broke through the Siegfried Line in November

Hitler gambled on one last offensive he hoped would save Germany

The Battle of the Bulge was the largest battle ever fought by the US Army

After heroic stands all along the bulge, American forces counterattacked and began to drive the Germans back

Hitler had gambled everything and had lost

By the spring of 1945, the German defenses fell apart

The German army in Italy surrendered at the end of April

American and Soviet forces finally linked up in Eastern Germany

It was agreed the Soviets would be allowed to capture Berlin

By January of 1945, Hitler had moved into an underground bunker in Berlin

In his final moments, Hitler blamed the Jews for starting the war

Hitler committed suicide in his bunker on April 30, 1945

A few days later, the city of Berlin fell to the Allied forces

On May 7, 1945,V-E Day, German commanders surrendered unconditionally

The war in Europe was finally over

All the German forces that could be spared attacked the Allied lines early in December

The American troops were pushed back thereby creating a huge Bulge in the Allied lines

The ten-day battle became called the Battle of the Bulge

WWII in the Pacific
Early Battles in the Pacific
On the same day of Pearl Harbor, the Japanese attacked other US bases in the Pacific

Americans defended Guam and Wake islands against Japanese attacks

The small garrisons were no match for the invaders and were forced to surrender

The Japanese also planned to invade and conquer Hawaii

In June 1942, U.S. forces met a large Japanese naval force headed for Midway Island, northwest of Hawaii

The War at Sea and in the Air
The Allies began by securing more islands in the Solomans

From there, The US attacked New Guinea and New Georgia islands

The British launched an offensive in Burma

By spring of 1944 the Japanese were pushed out of all three locations

Victory Over Japan
American marines captured the island of Iwo Jima
after a month of the hardest fighting of the war

US planners estimated it would take 3 days to capture the island

It took over a month

The island was needed for damaged US bombers returning from Japan to land on

The Japanese also began to bomb the Philippines

Following the bombing attacks,
Japanese troops were landed in the Philippines Islands

US and Filipino troops put up a brave fight, but were forced to retreat to Corregidor

The US evacuated General Douglas MacArthur from the Philippines, but the soldiers were left behind

The US and Filipino soldiers left at Corregidor surrendered

The 78,000 survivors were forced to march 55 miles to a POW camp

The Japanese felt surrender was dishonorable

Therefore they often treated captured soldiers and civilians with great cruelty

During the Bataan Death March, the Japanese killed more than 600 Americans and 10,000 Filipinos

If a soldier stopped or collapsed, they were executed

Others died as a result of the harsh conditions

Soon, the Japanese had captured Luzon, Burma, Thailand, and Malaya

The Japanese went on to capture a huge empire in the Pacific

Only Australia remained unconquered in the southwest Pacific

The Japanese began to plan to invade Australia

Landings in New Guinea and the Solomon Islands threatened to cut off Australia from the supply routes from Hawaii

A combined US and Australian naval fleet managed to defeat the Japanese invasion force in the Battle of Coral Sea in May, 1942

The Allies Turn the Tide
The Battle of Midway was fought by planes from the carriers of the two navies

The two fleets never came into visual contact with the other

The U.S. struck first when a squadron running low on fuel accidentally discovered the location of the Japanese carriers

Planes from the U.S. carriers and airfields on Midway Island attacked the Japanese carriers

The Japanese lost four of their carriers, some of which had taken part in the attack on Pearl Harbor

The Japanese also lost many of their experienced pilots

The U.S. lost just one carrier

The Battle of Midway is considered to be the turning point in the war in the Pacific

After their defeat, the Japanese would never again be able to mount an offensive in the Pacific

In August of 1942, U.S. Marines and Army invaded and captured the island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands from the Japanese

The supply line to Australia was now secure, and the Allies got a huge boost in confidence

It was the first time the Japanese lost territory from their empire

The Japanese tried to recapture Guadalcanal for three months

Finally, by 1943 the Allies pushed the Japanese out of the Solomon Islands

The US began a strategy called island hopping- only certain Japanese islands were targeted for invasion, the others were surrounded and cut off from all supplies, but never invaded

The US launched two separate attacks in the Pacific

The first, led by the Marines, concentrated on the Central Pacific

The second, led by the Marines and Army headed towards the Philippines

To oversee the Allied advance
General Douglas MacArthur was made Supreme Allied Commander in the Pacific

In the Central Pacific, Tarawa was targeted by the US as the first attempt at island hopping

The island was captured by U.S. marines in November of 1943

The marines suffered terrible casualties, but learned valuable lessons on sea invasions

The next target in the marines island hopping was the Marshall Islands

Kwajalein and several smaller islands that had airfields were attacked in 1944

The Marshall Islands soon fell to the marines

U.S. Marines in the Pacific captured Guam, Tinian, and Saipan in the Marianna Islands

The Marines were getting closer to the Japanese home islands

The US wanted these islands for their airfields

US bombers soon began bombing the Japanese home islands

An army led by MacArthur soon recaptured the Philippines

Furthermore, the Japanese navy suffered a major defeat in the Battle of Leyte Gulf in the Philippines

Their navy no longer posed a large threat to the US and its Allies

The Allies took the island of Okinawa next

The island would be the staging area for the invasion of Japan

In this battle, about 263 Allied ships were sunk or damaged by kamikazes, suicide attacks of Japanese pilots

The kamikazes would find a target and then fly their plane into it

After the Marianna Islands fell, the US began bombing Japan full-time

The US targeted military and industrial sites at first

The Japanese continued their resistance under heavy Allied bombing, including fire bombing of their major cities

The fire bombing raids killed more Japanese than the atomic bombs

Japan’s ports were blocked and what was left of her navy could not move

The Japanese refused to surrender

The Allies began to plan for the invasion of the Japanese home islands

Manhattan Project
Victory Over Japan
Building the Bomb
The US had steadily advanced across the Pacific

As they got closer and closer to Japan, they suffered higher casualties in battle

Now, allied soldiers were arriving on Okinawa to prepare to invade Japan

Military officials estimated that the allies would suffer over 1 million casualties if they invaded Japan

Dropping the Bombs
On August 6, 1945 a B-29 bomber named the Enola Gay dropped the atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima

The bomb was named Little Boy and was a uranium bomb

Victory Over Japan
On August 14 the Japanese surrendered unconditionally

They asked only that the emperor be allowed to keep his title and authority

The Allies agreed as long as the emperor accept the orders of Gen. MacArthur

At Potsdam, Truman, Atlee, and Stalin planned for the occupation of Germany and demanded an unconditional surrender of Japan

The Japanese refused to surrender

They began digging defenses and arming women and children to defend Japan

President Truman then had an important decision to make

In February 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta in the Soviet Union
At Yalta, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin made plans for ending the war and the future of Europe

The Soviets also agreed to enter the war against Japan in return for Japanese territory

President Truman was forced to make a critical decision

Should he order the invasion of Japan, knowing how many soldiers would be killed or wounded

Or, should he turn to another option, one very few people knew existed

The Manhattan Project was a secret operation that created the first atomic bombs for the US

Secret installations in Tennessee, Washington, and New Mexico were created to develop the bomb

The atomic race with Nazi Germany had begun

Some of the best scientists from the US and world worked to develop an atomic weapon

Robert Oppenheimer directed the work on the bombs

By the summer of 1945, several bombs had been created

However, Germany had already surrendered, but Japan had not

Tests were conducted in the New Mexico desert

After successful tests, the bombs were shipped to airfields in the Pacific

Truman now made the decision to use the atomic bombs against Japan

In August of 1939, famous scientist Albert Einstein wrote a letter to Franklin Roosevelt

The letter warned the president that the Germans were developing a nuclear weapon and the US should do so as well

Einstein’s letter convinced Roosevelt to start the Manhattan Project

Over 80,000 people were killed instantly, many more were injured and the entire city destroyed

Countless more people died from radiation sickness afterward

At first the officials in Tokyo had trouble believing one bomb had destroyed the entire city, yet they did not surrender

The Soviet Union declared war on Japan on August 8 and began preparing to invade Japan from the north

On August 9, another B-29, Bockscar, dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki

Over 40,000 people were killed instantly by Fat Man, a plutonium bomb

On September 2, 1945, V-J Day, both sides signed the Japanese surrender documents in Tokyo Harbor

The surrender was signed on the USS Missouri

World War II was officially over

Another meeting was held in Potsdam Germany in July

By that time, Roosevelt had died and was replaced by Harry Truman

Churchill had also lost an election and been replaced by Clement Attlee

Aftermath of WWII
Mobilization of People
WWII was a total war
more so than WWI had been

Fighting was more widespread and covered most of the world

Economic mobilization was more extensive

Women played a larger role in the conflict as well

Civilian deaths were almost 20 million, many of which were children

Peace and a New War
Allied victory in WWII was followed by a period called the Cold War

The Cold War was an ideological conflict between the US and the Soviet Union

Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill met at Tehran in 1943 to decide the future of the war

The Big Three met again in 1945 at Yalta

Initial defeats of the Soviet Union led to drastic measures

Leningrad experienced 900 days of siege

Its people were forced to eat dogs, cats, and rats

An estimated 1.5 million civilians died in Leningrad

As the German army rapidly advanced through Soviet Union, Soviet industry was dismantled and shipped west

Stalin called for widespread military and industrial mobilization

With the emphasis on military goods, civilians faced severe shortages of food and housing

Soviet women played a large role in the war
They worked in the factories, prepared defenses, and served on the front lines

Hitler believed that the collapse of the German home front led to the defeat in WWI

Hitler adopted economic policies he believed would keep Germany in the war

During the first two years of the war, no consumer goods were cut in favor of military production

Towards the end of the war, schools, theaters, and cafes were closed so people could help the war effort in Germany

The number of German women working increased very little

Wartime Japan was a highly mobilized society

The government controlled prices, wages, labor, and resources

Japan was extremely reluctant to mobilize women

They worried doing so would weaken the family so they turned to Korean and Chinese labor

At Yalta, Allied leaders made plans for the occupation of Germany and the defeat of Japan

Germany was to be divided and occupied into four zones

The US, Soviets, French, and British would occupy one zone in Germany

Stalin also agreed to allow free elections in the countries of Eastern Europe liberated by the Soviets

The Potsdam Conference was held in July 1945

By that time,
Roosevelt had died and was replaced by Harry Truman

Churchill had lost an election to Clement Atlee

At Potsdam, Truman demanded free elections in Eastern Europe

Stalin refused saying anti-Soviet governments would be elected

The Allies agreed to hold trials for war leaders who committed crimes against humanity

At the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi leaders were put on trial for their role in the Holocaust

Similar trials were held in Japan and Italy

As WWII receded into the past a new struggle began to emerge

Western nations feared Soviet policy was trying to spread communism

The Soviets viewed the West, especially the US policy, as global capitalist expansion

Churchill said an Iron Curtain had descended on Europe

The world seemed bitterly divided once again
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