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Introduction to Chemistry: The Basics

Scientific Notation; Mass, Volume, Density; Dimensional Analysis. Resources: Modern Chemistry- Holt, Rinehart, and Winston
by

Renee Robinson

on 19 October 2013

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Transcript of Introduction to Chemistry: The Basics

Scientific
Notation

Mass, Volume,
and Density

Significant digits
Steps to write Scientific Notation
Make the number between one and 10
10345000 --> 1.0345
Add x 10
1.0345 x 10
a= the number of decimal places the decimal must shift to get to the original number
move to right = positive number
move to left = negative number
1.0345 x 10^7 = 10345000
Examples
1006780000000 = 1.00678 x 10
.00000000567 = 5.67 x 10
**Always use scientific notation for numbers larger than 1000 and smaller than .0001**
Volume
lengh x width x height = volume
Cubic
Solid
Defined as the amount of space an object takes up
Usually measured with a graduated cylinder for liquids and a ruler for cubic solids
Units of measurement for liquids: Liters (L) or milliliters (mL) usually
Units of measurement for solids: cubic meters (m ) or cubic centimeters (cm ) usually
M
D
V
Significant digits in Chemistry are very important. The Significant digits of all numbers are those digits that carry meaning contributing to its precision. We follow simple rules to determine which digits are significant
First, lets learn about...
What is Scientific Notation?
Scientific notation is simply a way to write really large numbers or really small numbers in a convenient decimal formation. There are three simple steps to follow to write a number in Scientific Notation
1
2
3
a
a
12
-9
Practice
Convert the following numbers to Scientific notation
.00012 = _________
361000000 = _________
809200 = __________
.000000479 = _________
Convert the following numbers from Scientific notation to their original form
1.23 x 10 = _________
5.99 x 10 = _________
4.315 x 10 = _________
7. 31 x 10 = _________
3
-4
6
-2
Second, lets learn about...

Third, lets learn about...
Still need help? Check out this video tutorial on Scientific Notation from the Khan Academy.
Mass
Mass is a measure of the amount of matter.
Mass is the measurement you make using a balance in the lab!
Usually expressed as grams (g) or Kilograms (kg)
Matter....
is defined as anything that has MASS and takes up space!
Liquids
graduated cylinder
For irregularly shaped solids we use a technique called
Water Displacement!
You simply take the volume of water before you add the irregularly shaped object, than the volume of water after you add the object.... then subtract the two numbers to find the volume of the irregularly shaped object.
9 mL - 7 mL = 2 mL

Non-zero digits and zeros between non-zero digits are always significant
leading zero's are never significant
zero's to the right of all non-zero digits are only significant if a decimal point is shown.
For values written in scientific notation, the digits in the coefficient are significant.
Rules for Significant figures
Examples
1.005 mL = 4 sigdigs
.000046 m = 2 sigdigs
8000 mg = 1 sigdig
930.0 L = 4 sigdigs
10003.400 cm = 8 sigdigs
.003820 kg = 4 sigdigs
35.50 mL = 4 sigdigs
Practice !
100.30 = ________ sigdigs
100000 = ________ sigdigs
50500 = _______ sigdigs
893.100 = _______ sigdigs
1.09 x 10 = _______ sigdigs
3.20 = ________ sigdigs
.0000992 = _________ sigdigs
200. = _______ sigdigs
Need some extra help... no problem! Check out this video from Khan Academy for further explanation.
Density
Density is a measure of mass per unit volume
Objects/liquids with a low density float on top of objects/liquids with a higher density!!
M = D x V
D =
V =
M
V
M
D
INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
THE BASICS

Mrs. Robinson
Full transcript