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AP Labs 5-8
Transcript of AP Labs 5-8
Cellular Respiration AP Lab 6
Molecular Biology AP Lab 7
Genetics AP Lab 8
The optimum temperature for respiration in yeast is 30°C because that is when the highest number of gas bubbles was produced which means that, that was when the yeast had the highest rate of respiration. A. Yeast cells are placed in an apparatus with a solution of sugar (a major nutrient for yeast metabolism). The apparatus detects bubbles of gas released by the yeast cells. The rate of respiration varies with the surrounding temperatures as indicated by the data below. B. Temperature effects rate of respiration because enzymes function differently at different temperatures. If the temperature is too low, then the enzyme particles move slowly, so even though they are still functioning they are functioning much slower than the enzymes at 30°C. High temperatures cause the yeast cells to denature which inhibits their functioning and causes them to expand. Temperature must be optimal for the enzymes to break down the yeast because at an optimal temperature the enzymes work faster to break down the yeast molecules. C. For my experiment I would test a small amount of sugar solution at each pH level to find out how pH affected rate of respiration. I would expect the solution with a pH of 7 to have the highest rate of respiration because that is a neutral pH which means that there is not too little or too much CO₂ in the solution. Describe how a plasmid can be genetically modified to include a piece of foreign DNA that alters the phenotype of bacterial cells transformed with the modified plasmid. Describe a procedure to determine which bacterial cells have been successfully transformed. A plasmid can be genetically modified to include a piece of foreign DNA that alters the phenotype of bacterial cells transformed with the modified plasmid by using a restriction enzyme to cut the plasmid and the DNA to give them both a “sticky end.” The sticky ends then bind together and the foreign DNA is incorporated into the plasmid. Gel electrophoresis can be used to determine which bacterial cells have been successfully transformed. Gel electrophoresis separates DNA, or RNA molecules by size by moving negatively charged nucleic acid molecules through a matrix with an electric field. The DNA is then stained so that the bands of DNA are visible and it can be determined where the new DNA was incorporated. Evolution is one of the unifying themes of biology. Evolution involves change in the frequencies of alleles in a population. For a particular genetic locus in a population, the frequency of the recessive allele (a) is 0.4 and the frequency of the dominant allele (A) is 0.6. A new species of fly was discovered on an island in the South Pacific. Several different crosses were performed, each using 100 females and 100 males. The phenotypes of the parents and the resulting offspring were recorded. A. B. C. From cross I it can be determined that bronze eyes are dominant and show no distinction between gender because the F₁ offspring all had bronze eyes, and the F₂ generation showed a greater number of bronze eyed offspring than red eyed offspring and there was an equal distribution among genders. From cross II it can be determined that stunted wings are dominant and show no distinction between gender because the F₁ offspring all had stunted wings, and the F₂ generation showed a greater number of stunted winged offspring than normal winged offspring and there was an equal distribution among genders. From cross III it can be determined that dominant traits pair together and recessive traits pair together. Bronze eyes and stunted wings are dominant traits, and they pair together most commonly among the flies. Red eyes and normal wings are recessive traits, but when paired together they appear almost as common as bronze eyes and stunted wings. Bronze eyes, normal wings and red eyes, stunted wings don’t appear together very often. Based on cross I and II I would not have expected to see as many flies with red eyes and normal wings because those are the two recessive traits. Natural selection would affect the population if the recessive group died off, and random mating would affect the population if the flies stopped choosing their mate based on preference and just chose a random mate. A. The frequency for genotype AA is 0.36, the frequency for genotype Aa is 0.48, and the frequency for genotype aa is 0.16. The frequency of the dominant phenotype is 0.84.
Dominant phenotype=AA+Aa=0.36+0.48=0.84 B. The Hardy-Weinberg principle of genetic equilibrium can be used to determine whether this population is evolving by looking at the ratios because if the population does not change then it should be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, but if something happens then the population ratio will change and will not be in equilibrium. C. If a new group of species migrates and begins to mate with a group of species that already lived in the area this would alter allelic frequencies because there would be a larger number of possible mates which would increase the gene pool. The Hardy-Weinberg principle of no emigration would not be met because a group of species had migrated to a new area to change the population.