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2015-16 IGCSE Unit 16: Reproduction in flowering plants

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Blanca Peris

on 16 November 2016

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Transcript of 2015-16 IGCSE Unit 16: Reproduction in flowering plants

Unit 16: Reproduction in plants
16.1 FLOWER STRUCTURE
Sepals:
protect the flower bud.
Typical insect-pollinated flower
Petals:
brightly coloured, scented and may have nectaries to attract insects.
EXAMPLES.
INSECT-POLINATED FLOWER
Hibiscus flower
Daisy flower
EXAMPLES.
WIND-POLINATED FLOWER
Grass flowers
Pine
16.2 POLLINATION
POLLEN GRAINS UNDER THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE
Transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma.
Agents of pollination: insects, birds, mammals, water and the wind.
16.3 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INSECT AND WIND-POLLINATED FLOWERS
16.4 FERTILIZATION
When the sperm and egg cell nuclei fuse together (general definition).
16.5 FRUIT AND SEED FORMATION
After fertilization:
The egg cells divides many times producing an embryo: the seed
The wall of the ovule turns into a coat called testa
The ovary grows and becomes a fruit that protects the seeds
16.6 SEED STRUCTURE
The
cotyledon
is the food store.
Radicle
: New root
16.7 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AFFECTING GERMINATION OF SEEDS
1.
Water:
needed for the seed to swell and burst open and to make soluble the stored food for the embryo.
2.
Oxygen:
needed for the embryo to respire. (Energy needed for growth)
3.
Suitable temperature:
warmth is needed by most seeds. Seeds do not normally germinate till the spring or summer.
16.8 SEED AND FRUIT DISPERSAL
Wind and animal dispersal are used by plants to colonise new areas.
Animal dispersed seed/fruit: apple, tomato.
New areas have less competition for light, space and nutrients, so seeds are more likely to develop.
Wind dispersed seeds/fruit: dandelion, olive tree
Tiny in wind pollinated flowers with exposed stamens and stigma.
16.9 ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Asexual production:
the process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent.
Advantages
Fast and requires less energy to reproduce as an organism doesn’t need to find another partner.
Disadvantages
Less genetic diversity so if the environment changes they might not be able to adapt.

Examples of asexual reproduction in plants: cuttings and grafting
Helicopter/samara
16.1 FLOWER STRUCTURE
Ovary:
hollow chamber, ovules grow from the walls.
Anthers:
has pollen sacs with pollen grains which contain the male gamete.
Stigma:
sticky surface on which pollen grains land
16.2 POLLINATION
16.3 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INSECT AND WIND-POLLINATED FLOWERS
16.4 FERTILIZATION
16.5 FRUIT AND SEED FORMATION
16.6 SEED STRUCTURE
16.7 CONDITIONS AFFECTING GERMINATIO
16.8 SEED AND FRUIT DISPERSAL
16.9 ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
When pollen grains land on stigma creates a tube down the style to fertilise the ovules.
The
plumule
will be the new shoot
The
testa
protects and stops drying out of embryo.
END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS
PAGE 209-210
ACTIVITIES 1, 2,3
Full transcript