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Horse respiratory system.
Transcript of Horse respiratory system.
Why are horses special?
Digestive system of a horse.(heikebean.com N/D)
Image of the digestive tract of a horse. (thinklikeahorse.org 2004)
Horse respiratory system.
tube connects the middle ear to the
, which lies lateral and dorsal to the pharynx (shown in the image below) the guttural pouch is protected by a cartilaginous flap that opens when the horse swallows to prevent foreign material entering the tract.
The soft palate forms a muscular sheet from the hard palate to the roof of the pharynx. there is a hole towards the caudal part of the soft palate called the
this form a food tight seal.
The special thing about the horses larynx is the outpoaching of the
This occurs laterally between the vocal and vestibular folds within the thyroid cartilage to form the
Laxity in the muscles that contract the ventricles result in the eversion of the ventricles into the lumen of the larynx. this laxity commonly results from degeneration of the recurrent
. The condition is commonly seen on the left side the left laryngeal muscles may become paralyzed (
) The most significant muscle is the left
muscle which is the only abductor of the
and causes laryngeal obstruction during exercise (meaning affected horses usually young males make a whistling kind of noise when breathing).
The trachea is located ventrally and slightly to the right of the midline. the cartilages are c shaped with the free ends bridged by the trachealis muscle. the right and left lungs are more equal in size in horses and there is no external evidence of lobation, execpt the accessory lobe which is attached to the base of the right lung and the cranial lobes narrow from the main body of the lungs.
Upper respiratory system of a horse.(www.merckmanuals.com 2013)
Hormones secreted by the digestive tract.
Barnes, C. (2013) anatomy and physiology. Class notes. Solihull college. November 2013
BSVA text book of veterinary nursing 2008 4th Ed
Evans. J,W. (2001) Horses a guide to selection, care and enjoymement. 3rd Ed.
Horse Anatomy of the Digestive System (2008) available at:http://www.understanding-horse-nutrition.com/
horse-anatomy.html (Accessed December 2013)
Frandson, R,D. (1992) Anatomy and physiology of farm animals. 5th Ed. USA.
Slide 1 image. Merckmanualsc.om (2013)
Introduction to Lung and Airway Disorders of Horses.
Available at:http://www.merckmanuals.com/pethealth/horse_disorders_and_diseases/lung_and_airway_disorders_of_horses/introduction_to_lung_and_airway_disorders_of_horses.html(Accessed December 2013)
Slide 3 image. leavingbio.net (N/D)
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
Available at:http://leavingbio.net/respiratory%20system/the%20respiratory%20system.htm (Accessed December 2013)
Slide 5 image. Study blue. (2013)
Anatomy past papers
. Available at:http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/anatomy-past-papers/deck/908277 (Accessed December 2013)
slide 7 image. livinglegends.org (2014)
Preventing and Managing Respiratory Disease.
Available at:http://www.livinglegends.org.au/horse-health/horse-respiratory-health/preventing-and-managing-respiratory-disease/ (Accessed December 2013)
slide 11 image 1. Heikebean.com (N/D)
PROPER EQUINE NUTRITION.
Available at:http://heikebean.com/nutrition.htm (Accessed December 2013)
slide 11 image 2 thinklikeahorse.org (2004)
Horse anatomy pictures.
Available at:http://thinklikeahorse.org/index-5.html (accessed December 2013)
slide 13 image 1 vivo.colostate.edu (2009)
Gross and Microscopic Anatomy of the Stomach.
Available at:http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/stomach/anatomy.html (Accessed December 2013)
slide 13 image 2.thehorse.com (2014)
The Equine Digestive System: A Food Factory.
Available at:http://www.thehorse.com/articles/17023/the-equine-digestive-system-a-food-factory (Accessed December 2013)
slide 13 image 3.sciencephoto.com. (N/D)
Available at:http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/488935/view (Accessed December 2013)
slidfe 17 image 1 and 2. merkmanual.com (2013)
The Urinary System of Horses.
Available at:http://www.merckmanuals.com/pethealth/horse_disorders_and_diseases/kidney_and_urinary_tract_disorders_of_horses/the_urinary_system_of_horses.html (Accessed December 2013)
slide 19 image. wikibooks (2013)
Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Urinary System.
Available at:http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatomy_and_Physiology_of_Animals/Urinary_System (Accessed December 2013)
Lower respiratory tract of a horse.
The respiratory system of the horse means how a horse circulates air around its internal organs
Did you know that Horses are obligate nasal breathers which means they can only breath through their noses. The respiratory system consists of:
: the external part of the nose is called the nasal plate, the central part of the nasal plate is called the
the outer part of the nose is lined with epithelium which is replaced in the entrance into mucosa. the nasal cavity is lined with olfactory mucosa. The two nasal cavities are separated by the
(cartilage) The situation of the nasal cavities are
(folds of cartilage) and
(scrolls of cartilage located in the caudal part of the nasal cavities) they provide lage areas for removal of dust, bacteria and warming of air.
,connects the nasal cavity to the larynx. It is divided into the
(caudal nasal cavities) and
(caudal oral cavity)
is a box of cartilages:
is spade shaped and attached to the tongue and thyroid cartilage,
is the largest cartilage and forms the floor of the larynx,
that forms the inside of the larynx and support the vocal chords and the
which is a ring like structure that articulates with the thyroid cartilage and trachea.
Horse digestive system.
The digestive tract of a horse consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The liver and pancreas are associated with the digestive tract and they release secretions straight into it. The function of the digestive tract is mastication, digestion, absorption, and the initial storage of nutrients.
Digestion in the foregut is primarily accomplished through the action of enzymes. The hindgut is where fibrous parts of the diet are digested by microbes through the process of fermentation, so different foods will pass through at different speeds (grain is faster than hay)
lie within the thoractic cavity, each is covered with connective tissue (
) the lungs consist of bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, blood vessels and connective tissue. each lung is divided into lobes the left lung comprises the cranial, middle and caudal lobes and the right lung is the same but has and accessory lobe too.
The normal resting respiration rate for a horse is 12 to 32 resperations per minute, this can be checked by watching the nostrils (
) as they flare as they breath and the abdomen rises and falls. Exercise can increase thisto 120 respirations per minute.
the horse is unusual because the breathing rate in link to the horses gait, when a horse gallops the stride rate equals the respiration rate.
When they gallop they lift their legs, their head is raised, their gut moves back, bringing air into the lungs and they breath in. When they land their head drops, their hind legs move backwards, their gut moves forward pushing on the diaphragm and forcing the air out and they breath out.
Alveoli structure. (Leavingbio.net N/D)
lobes of the lungs (studyblue.com 2013)
Why are horses special?
Well because they digest most of their feed in their hindgut (cecum and colon) rather than their stomach. They are hindgut fermenters these are unusual and there are not many (rhinos and rabbits). Foregut fermentors have very complex stomachs, and they differ in the number of stomach compartments.
How does it all work?
Image showing the fold of rugae on an empty stomach iron out when full. (http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/ 2009)
Image of the villi in the small intestines. (www.sciencephoto.com N/D)
consists of c shaped rings of cartilage connected together by fibrous connective tissue and smooth muscle and are lined with ciliated epithelium, it passes into the thorax and transverses the mediastinum. It splits into two bronchi and its function is to allow airflow from the larynx to the lungs.
are similar in structure to the trachea they divide further in to
and the amount of cartilage is decreased they continue to divide to a level of the terminal bronchioles and end in
which look like a bunch off grapes with the aveoli being the grapes. the aveoli are lined with a single cell thick pulmonary membrane covered with capillaries, across which gas exchange takes place.
How is it controlled?
Their mouths is the start of digestion horses have a hard palate which is wide and merges into a softer palate, their tongue is long and wider at the tip than at the base and is covered with taste buds the main salivary gland are paired and include the parotid, mandibular, sublingual and buccal glands. horse teeth are adapted to their diet they have large incisors and flattened molars and they chew side to side to break up their feed.
In Horses it is smooth muscle and works involuntary, there are four layers to the tube tunica mucosa (goblet cells) tunica submucosa, tunica muscularis extrerna and tunica adventitia. movement is achieved in the oesophagus by peristalsis a wave of muscular contractions that puss the bolus (ball of food) along, the tunica muscularis contracts and also the glands in mucosa/submucosa layer lubricate the passage way.
is small in relation to the size of the body and is mainly situated on the left side of the cranial abdomen. the stomach is made up of regions the upper region consists of the funus and body and they hold they ingested food and the lower region consists of the lower body and the antrum they contact to grind food. it is basically a muscular bag, the entrance and exit are kept closed by a ring of muscles called a sphincter horses have a well developed sphincter so vomiting is rare. (entrance cardiac and exit pyloric sphincter) when empty the stomach has folds called rugae (shown in the image to the left) they unfold when the stomach fills up and distends, Horses are herbivores and they continually graze to prevent acid building up undiluted in their empty stomach this causes ulcers. Protein breakdown begins in the stomach. It seretes goblet cells (protective mucus), parietal cells (hydrochloric acid, ph and immunity killing bacteria ingested), pepsinogen (protease begins to break down protein into peptides) and chyme (semi digested food).
Horse small intestines are around 25meters in length and the duodenum is short and commences ventral to the liver where the sigmoid flexure is formed, first dorsally and then ventrally as it moves in a caudal direction. At the first bend the pancreas and bile duct empty from a single papilla into the duodenum the duodenum then continues passes the root of the mesentery until the final part of the duodenum passes cranially to continue as the jejunum. the ileum is short and has thicker walls than the jejunum and duodenum. The ileum ends in the base of the cecum into which protrudes on the papilla. Most of the small intestine is situated in the left dorsal part of the abdomen along with the descending colon, the inside has small intestinal villi that look like bristle on a tooth brush (shown in the image to the right) they are to increase the surface area and increase absorption rate.
consists of the caecum, colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anus. The cecum is at the beginning of the large intestine and it only has one opening, Everything goes out the same opening as it goes in. the food goes in, gets mixed around and digested by the microbes and exits into the rest of the large intestine .In the cecum, microbes ferment and break down the fiber. To provide important nutrients like fatty acids and amino acids. In the large and small colon reabsorption takes place of any water from the digestive tract. Also wastes from bodily functions are secreted ready to leave the body. Microbial fermentation continues along the length of the colon. Since the colon is so large, it is another place where the horse anatomy makes the digestive system special, there are so many twists and turns that it is easy for it to get kinked or twisted, causing various types of colic.
Rectum and anus:
This is the last part of the horse anatomy in the digestive system. The rectum is the last section of colon in the pelvic area, and the anus is the opening at the end of the tract. Peristaltic contractions push faeces towards the rectum which is a storage area. filling the rectum stimulates the defecation reflex, which causes the internal anal sphincters to relax.
The colon makes up approximately 45% of the horse’s digestive tract, compared to 17% of yours.
The digestive system is controlled by both the nervous system and the endocrine system. The digestive system has its own branch of nervous system, called the enteric nervous system. It forms part of the autonomic nervous system (subconsciously controlled) intrinsic plexuses (network of neurons) lie in the wall of the digestive tract from the oesophagus to the anus the myenteric plexus affects the contractions and therefor controls the motility as it affects peristalsis and the submucosal plexus that control the functioning of the epitelial vells (which absorb nutrients or secrete mucus and enzymes) and also regulates blood flow in the digestive tract.stretch receptors in the stomach send messages to the brain that food has entered.
There is also
extrinsic nerve plexuses
that have an effect on the digestive system which involves the
central nervous system.
they control emotion for food from the senses like smell, which are known to increase gastric secretions and saliva.
The extrinsic inputs from two branches of the autonomic nervous system which effect the digestive system:
which inhibits. (decreases secretions and muscle movement)
which is excitatory (increases secretions and muscle movement)
The urinary system
Kidney and their function
produced by the stomach when it is empty. Informs the brain to feed.
secreted by the stomach when it is full, increases gastric acid.
: secreted by the duodenum this hormones promotes the secretion of pancreatic enzymes after a meal and reduces appetite.
secreted from the small intestine it stimulates the bicarbonant rich fluids from the pancreas and liver these also neutralize stomach acid.
The pancreas is an endocrine gland releasing
into the blood which lower and raise blood sugar levels but its also and exocrine gland which release enzymes into the digestive tract:
Proteases digest proteins:
secreted in the small intestine (trypsin and chymotrypsin)
Pancreatic digest fats:
breaks the two fatty acid tails from the trigyceride molecules to make it a monoglyceride.
breaks down starch into maltose.
In a horse the urinary system (tract) includes the
(tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder), the
(the tube through which urine exits). The urinary system has lots of functions. It gets rid of the waste products that are created when food is transformed into energy. It maintains the balance of water and
(salts) within the body's cells. It also produces hormones like
which is important for maintaining healthy blood pressure, producing blood cells, and absorbing nutrients.
Image of the urinary tract in a female horse. (www.merckmanuals.com 2013)
Image of the urinary tract in a male horse. www.merckmanuals.com 2013)
Image of a dissected kidney. (en.wikibooks.org 2013)
The kidneys are heart shaped and sit in a depression in the liver, it is ventrally attached to the pancreas at the base of the caecum. The left kidney lies ventral the last rib and the first three lumbar processes. The ureters is wide at they exit the kidneys they rapidly narrow as they enter the urinary bladder. They are well protected by fat which prevents injury and heat loss.
They are a filtration system with a good blood supply fed in by the renal artery, it then filters and cleans the blood to return to the body via the renal vein, waste carried down the urethra from each kidney is stored in the bladder before bring exerted by the urethra.
(comes from the breaks=down of amino acids in the liver)
(deamination of adreneline and guanine, low toxicity)
(by product from deamination of aminio acids, highly toxic)
indentation where the ureter exits and blood vessels enter and exit.
tiny filteration units of the idneys, responsible forurine formation.
inner most section.
mid section contains lower part of the nephron.
outer section contains most of the nephron.
areas containing nephron.
area that leads into the collecting ducts.
Partial pressure is the pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.
Atmospheric pressure (at sea level) is about 100 kPa.
One fifth of the air is oxygen. so one fifth of atmospheric pressure is due to oxygen.
Therefore Partial pressure of oxygen is 20 kPa.
(It can be written as ppO2)
Oxygen is picked up by the blood in the lungs and transported in the circulation, As the blood passes through the capillary beds in the tissues a proportion of the oxygen is lost from the blood to the tissues. oxygen is hardly soluble in plasma, it is carried haemoglobin (red blood cells). as such the haemaglobin loads oxygen into the blood capillaries and empties it in the tissue capillaries. So to function correctly haemoglobin must attract oxygen under certain condition and lose aunder others. Loading and unloading is a reversable reaction, in which one haemoglobin (Hb) can attract up to 4 oxygen molecules Hb+4O2 HbO8