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A New Republic Begins 1789-1800
Transcript of A New Republic Begins 1789-1800
A ceremony at which the President officially takes the oath of office.
An act or decision that sets an example for others to follow
Department of State
Department of Treasury
Department of War
The Judiciary Act
The Judiciary Act
called for one Chief Justice and five Associate Justices
set up a system of district courts and circuit courts
Launching a New Government
First Secretary of the Treasury
A Man With a Plan
Sell new bonds
to pay off old debt.
I Better come up with a compromise
North wants the South to help pay. The South wants the Capital to move south.
Not another problem to solve!
Building Up the Economy
Bank of the United States
A Hated Tax
A Policy of Neutrality
Revolution in France
France's support of the American Revolution left France almost bankrupt.
Peasants and the middle class paid heavy taxes; nobles paid none.
called to limit the King's power
Influenced by Enlightenment ideas of Popular Sovereignty and Inalieable Rights
Knew the struggle for liberty
Many wanted to rally around Marquis de Lafayette who helped fight the British during the American Revolution.
A Reign of Terror
A radical group gained power, captured King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette and behead them. Thousands of French citizens were executed.
Thomas Jefferson (Secretary of State)
Condemned the killings in France but thought the French had the right to use violence to win freedom.
Other Cabinet Members
Doomed to fail!
April 1793 - To avoid war Washington issues the
The United States will not take sides.
Soon after Jefferson resigns and leaves the Cabinet.
Old treaty allowed France to use ports
Hamilton states the King is dead the treaty is void
Jefferson thinks we should honor treaty and is suspicious of Hamilton
Chief Justice John Jay
was difficult. Both Britain and France were capturing American merchant ships. Washington sent Chief Justice Jay to work out a treaty with Britain.
Britain must pay damages for American ships seized in 1793.
Americans had to pay debts to British merchants owed from the Revolution.
Britain agreed to give up forts still held in the Ohio Valley.
Senate approved the treaty in 1795 to avoid war.
Washington's second way to avoid war.
The New Republic Begins
My fellow Americans, remain neutral in foreign affairs. Observe good faith and justice toward all nations.
The Rise of Political Parties
A group inside a political party.
Power of Government
Bank of United States
Led by Alexander Hamilton
People should have political power
Strong state governments
Strict interpretation of the Constitution
Opposed National Bank
The influence of newspapers.
Notice the influence?
The Second President
Conflict with France
France objects to
and begins to sieze American ships.
President Adams wants to avoid war and sends diplomats to France.
The XYZ Affair
"Talleyrand sent us."
"I want $250,00 for myself, a $10 million loan for France before we begin to talk about a treaty."
I'm telling Congress!
Adams avoids war by building fast-sailing ships with many guns.
Hamilton and other Federalists didn't agree with Adams.
stronger federal government
Hey Napoleon how about peace?
Absolutely, I don't have time for war!
President = expel aliens
to be citizens
(Wait 14 years)
Criticize government = Jail
How did the nation get in so much debt?
Borrowed money and issued bonds.
certificate which promises to repay the money borrowed plus interest
National Government will pay off state debts
their debt in full.
1791 Congress sets up
Hamilton Proposes a national bank.
Tax Money Collected
Money is loaned out
Money Deposited in National Bank
How Bank Encourages Economic Growth
Money is used to pay government bills (pay employees, military, build new capital
The Whiskey Rebellion
Congress passed bills to pay state debt and provide a new capital city.
actions and stands that a nation takes in relation to other nations
Model after Britain
Grow cities and merchants
Farmers are backbone
Mfg = small rich group and corrupt government
Fed = More power
Strong Fed. Gov. might take State power
"Necessary and Proper"
Needed collect taxes
Strengthen ties with Britain
Struggling for liberty
We need to get people on our side.
the Republican Party.
Federalists Push Laws Through Congress
Two Precedents set by Washington
1. Only served two terms.
2. Chose his Cabinet members carefully.
First Supreme Court Chief Justice
Buy all bonds issued before 1789
How to deal with the national debt.
Tax Foreign Goods
Foreign goods will be more expensive.
They'll have to buy American products.
Wealthy and educated should lead nation
Strong central government
Loose interpretation of Constitution
Favored National Bank
Led by Thomas Jefferson