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Government in the Philippines during the American Occupation
Transcript of Government in the Philippines during the American Occupation
Battle of Manila Bay
The Cooper act or the Philippine bill of 1902 provided for the creation of an elected Philippine Assembly after the following conditions were met:
the cessation of the existing insurrection in the Philippine Islands;
completion and publication of a census
two years of continued peace and recognition of the authority of the United States of America after the publication of the census
It contained the first formal and official declaration of the United States Federal Government's commitment to grant independence to the Philippines. and was a framework for a "more autonomous government", with certain privileges reserved to the United States to protect its sovereign rights and interests, in preparation for the grant of independence by the United States. The law provides that the grant of independence would come only "as soon as a stable government can be established", which was to be determined by the United States Government itself.
The OsRox Mission (1931) was a campaign for self-government and United States recognition of the independence of the Philippines led by former Senate President Sergio Osmeña and House Speaker Manuel Roxas. The mission secured the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act, which was rejected by the Philippine Legislature and Manuel Quezon. The OsRox Mission stayed in the US the longest and secured the passage of the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act. It would establish the Philippine Commonwealth as a transition government for 12 years before receiving independence on July 4, 1946. It separated the Philippine Legislature in two "camps", the Antis and the Pros. The Pros were led by Osmeña and Roxas, who supported the act as they believed it was the best one they could get out of the US Congress. Senate President Manuel Quezon led the Antis and objected the act due to its "objectionable features". He also believed that the act did not truly grant the Philippines independence. Aside from granting the Philippines independence, the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act also reserved military bases from the US and let American goods into the country for free.
Tydings–McDuffie Act provided for the drafting and guidelines of a Constitution for a 10-year "transitional period" which became the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines before the granting of Philippine independence, during which the US would maintain military forces in the Philippines.
The 1935 constitution provided for a unicameral legislature known as the National Assembly with the speaker as the presiding officer. In 1940, the Constitution was amended changing the structure of the legislative department to bicameral composed of the National Assembly as the House of Representatives(lower house) and the Senate( upper house)
The executive power was vested in the hands of the President. Under the Constitution, the President was elected for a single term of 6 yrs with no reelection. On May 8 1940, the term of the president was shortened to 4 yrs but the president could run for reelection
The judicial body was entrusted in one Supreme Court headed by a Chief Justice and in such inferior courts as might be established by law. The judiciary's independence was assured so that it could do justice to every man.
Commodore George Dewey's victory over Spain during the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898 marked the United States of America as a global power and thus, ended Spain's "world power"
U.S MILITARY GOVERNMENT
Following the Capture of Manila in the famous mock battle of Manila Bay on Aug. 14,1898, the U.S along with Gen.Wesley Merritt established a Military Government in the Philippines with Merritt as 1st military governor
A military government or military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignity of that entity without the volition of the actual sovereign
Achievements of the
it laid down the foundation of the US civil Government
It introduced the American System of education with the US soldiers as first teachers
it organized the civil courts including the Supreme Court, with the learned Cayetano Arellano as first Chief justice
it established the local government in towns and provinces
it conducted through Gen. Henry W. Lawton, the first local election on May 7, 1899
First Philippine Commission
On Jan. 20 1899, President McKinley appointed the First Philippine Commission (the Schurman Commission), a five-person group headed by Dr. Jacob Schurman, president of Cornell University, and including Admiral Dewey and General Otis, to investigate conditions in the islands and make recommendations. In the report that they issued to the president the following year, the commissioners acknowledged Filipino aspirations for independence; they declared, however, that the Philippines was not ready for it.
U.S Civil Government
Second Philippine Commisson
The Taft Commission
The Second Philippine Commission (the Taft Commission), appointed by McKinley on March 16, 1900, and headed by future president William Howard Taft, was granted legislative as well as limited executive powers. Between September 1900 and August 1902 it issued 499 laws. A judicial system was established, including a Supreme Court, and a legal code was drawn up to replace antiquated Spanish ordinances. A civil service was organized. The 1901 municipal code provided for popularly elected presidents, vice presidents, and councilors to serve on municipal boards. The municipal board members were responsible for collecting taxes, maintaining municipal properties, and undertaking necessary construction projects; they also elected provincial governors.
a bill of rights for the Filipinos
the appointment of two Filipino nonvoting Resident Commissioners to represent the Philippines in the United States Congress
establishment of the Philippine Assembly to be elected
by the Filipinos two years after the publication
of a census and only after peace had been
restored completely in
the disestablishment of the Roman Catholic Church
conservation of natural resources for the Filipinos
exercise of executive power by the civil governor who would have several executive departments
Philippine Autonomy Act, OsRox Mission and the Tydings-McDuffie Law
The Commonwealth Government
The Commonwealth of the Philippines was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country. It replaced the Insular Government, a United States territorial government, and was established by the Tydings–McDuffie Act. The Commonwealth was designed as a transitional administration in preparation for the country's full achievement of independence.
During its more than a decade of existence, the Commonwealth had a strong executive and a Supreme Court. Its legislature, dominated by the Nacionalista Party, was at first unicameral, but later bicameral. In 1937, the government selected Tagalog–the language of Manila and its surrounding provinces–as the basis of the national language, although it would be many years before its usage became general. Women's suffrage was adopted and the economy recovered to its pre-Depression level before the Japanese occupation in 1942.
The Republic of the Philippines
3 Branches of Government