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Becoming a World Power
Transcript of Becoming a World Power
Berlin Congress (1884-1885)
European powers divided up Africa
U.S. attended but did not sign the final agreement
Japan, Belgium, Great Britain, France strengthened hold on colonies in Africa and elsewhere
What was the primary justification for this "new imperialism?
The Monroe Doctrine (1823)?
Oppose European colonization in the Americas
No further involvement in European Wars
Warning to European powers to not interfere with newly independent states in Latin America
Last new territory; purchased from Russia
The Lure of Empire
Explain the arguments to support United States expansion in the late 19th century
America set its sights on Hawaii
(1893) Planters organized a rebellion and overthrew Queen Liliuokalani's government
Annexation treaty withdrawn by Grover Cleveland
Roots of the Spanish American War (1898)
Cuban struggle for independence from Spain gained support in the U.S.
February 15th, 1898
helped increase support for the war effort
Theodore Roosevelt leads the Rough Riders in the charge up San Juan Hill
U.S. Territorial Gains....
(Annexed in 1898)
Open Door Policy (1899):
Secretary of State John Hay
Insisted Asia be opened for trade with the U.S.
Free movement of goods and money
What would the following people/groups gain from this expansion?
American economic interests?
The Philippine War (1899-1903):
Philippines established constitutional government
President McKinley decided to maintain possession of the islands
Rebellion against the U.S.
Brought in American teachers, health officials
Policies to benefit the economic elite, as well as American interests
The Big Questions....
Citizens or Subjects?
Republic or Empire?
Rival European empires carved up parts of the world for themselves
One of many factors that helped push the United States and Spain into war in Cuba and the Philippines
William Randolph Hearst (The New York Journal) vs.
Joseph Pulitzer (New York World)
When Hearst Artist Frederic Remington, cabled from Cuba in 1897 that "there will be no war," William Randolph Hearst cabled back: "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war."
Spanish policy of sending civilians believed to be allies of the rebels to guarded camps
Cuban exiles in the U.S. pressured the government to help the rebels
Effects of the Spanish-American War:
"We do not want the Filipinos.
We want the Philippines."
"All our troubles in this annexation matter have been caused by the presence in the Philipino Islands of the Filipinos. Were it not for them, the Treaty of Paris would have been an excellent thing."
President William McKinley (1897-1901)
House of Reps, Governor of Ohio
Administration dominated by foreign affairs concerns
Defeated William Jennings Bryan in 1896 AND 1900
U.S. Navy Assistant Secretary
Led the Rough Riders, a volunteer cavalry unit
Vice-President of the United States
What is the definition of the term IMPERIALISM?
100,000 Filipino deaths
4,200 American deaths
Debate in the U.S.: Goal in the Philippines?
Reports of atrocities committed by American troops
Justified by saying goal was to "uplift and civilize"
Game: "Who Am I and Why Does the United States Want Me?"
-One piece of paper for your group
-# from 1-6, leaving space between the numbers
-Travel around the room and look at the maps. Answer the questions (to the left) on the paper
Expand "manifest destiny"
Spread "Anglo Saxon" ways of life to "inferior races"
Turn "savages" into consumers to help economies
No more frontier so needed new land
Intense American nationalism + desire for adventure abroad
The explosion of the USS Maine
Who was not invited to the conference????
Cuban struggle for independence from Spain
Led to the acquisition of overseas territory by the United States
Roosevelt's heroism exaggerated, but made him a national hero
Treaty of Paris (1898)
U.S. paid $20 million for territorial gains
Cuba could not enter into agreements without U.S. approval
U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs
U.S. gains naval bases
U.S. as a world power with overseas possessions and a new role in international politics
Assassinated by an anarchist in 1901
Economy dominated by American-owned sugar plantations
Insular Cases (1901):
Supreme Court held that full constitutional rights do not automatically extend to all places under American control
Inhabitants of territories such as Puerto Rico—"even if they are U.S. citizens"—may lack some constitutional rights