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Biology of Mind

Chapter 2 (Myers)
by

Esther Grabow

on 25 June 2016

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Transcript of Biology of Mind

Biology of
Mind

What "Mind" Means
----------------
----------------
How does the brain give rise to the mind?
Phrenology:
studying bumps on the skull to reveal mental abilities & character traits
Franz Gall
early 1800s
How the Brain & Body Communicate
Neurons
basic building block of the nervous system
How Neurons Communicate
Pg. 52
Pg. 50
neurotransmitter
: chemical messenger that crosses the synaptic gap between neurons
Altered Neurotransmission
Electrochemical Communication Network
The Nervous System
brain
spinal chord
interneurons
internal communication
intervene between sensory inputs and motor outputs
connects Central Nervous System (CNS) to rest of body
sensory neurons
motor neurons
sensory input
interneuron
communication
motor output
pg 57
Peripheral
Autonomic
Nervous System
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
arousing
fight/flight
calming
rest/relax
"Slow" Chemical Communication
The Endocrine System
hormones: chemical messengers
travel through bloodstream
affect body tissue (including the brain)
Nervous System
Endocrine System
pg 60
pituitary gland
& hypothalamus
The Brain
pg 68
http://www.g2conline.org/2022
The Newest Brain Structure
The Cerebral Cortex
Frontal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
sensory cortex
perception
Temporal Lobe
auditory areas
recognition
Occipital Lobe
visual areas
Motor & Sensory Cortex
Motor cortex in frontal lobe
Sensory cortex in parietal lobe
each hemisphere controls opposite side of body
Association Areas
pg 74
vast areas that integrate perceived information
found in all four lobes
Our mental experiences arise from coordinated brain activity
Brain Plasticity
brain's ability to change by building new pathways based on experience or after damage
Two-Hemisphere Brain
corpus callosum
: neural fibers connecting the two hemispheres
pg 54
Sensory Neuron
: carries messages inward toward spinal cord & brain

Motor Neuron
: carries messages away from spinal cord & brain to muscles

Interneurons
: information processing in brain & spinal cord between sensory & motor neurons
Studying the Brain
Case studies of brain injury, abnormalities, & surgery
lesioning parts of animal brains
altering brain function
chemically numbing
magnetically deactivating
electrically stimulating
brain images
The Case of Phineas Gage
case study of brain injury
Learned: functions of the frontal lobe
Major Brain Areas
Brainstem & Cerebellum
Limbic system
Cortex
coordinates the body
emotions, drives, & memory
integrates information
Two-Hemisphere Brain

Details such as “trees”
Language: words and definitions
Linear and literal
Speaking & calculation tasks
Pieces and details

LEFT
Right

Big picture such as “forest”
Language: tone, inflection, context
Inferences and associations
Perceptual tasks
Wholes, including the self

Oldest Brain Structures
heartbeat/breathing
automatic
movement
arousal
relays information between brainstem & cortex
Brainstem
Oldest Brain Structures
Cerebellum
"little brain"
motor learning
movement coordination
balance
timing
The Limbic System
emotions, basic drives, & memory
memories
emotions: fear & anger
rewards & drives
controls endocrine system
speaking
planning
judgment
motor cortex
Neural Connections
neurons and glial cells
Glial Cells
support
nourish
clean
brain-body communication
Brain plasticity - the story of Jody
Full transcript