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Global Slum Upgrading Inventory

Analyzing and documenting dominant approaches to slum upgrading

Matthew Anthony

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of Global Slum Upgrading Inventory

Global Slum Upgrading Inventory Mapping slum upgrading approaches, programmes, and actors Approaches In-situ upgrading Incremental Comprehensive as well as... Slum prevention Housing finance Housing construction ... Cities Alliance The World Bank The World Bank Institute Key global
actors Asian Coalition of Housing Rights SU
approach Programmes Knowledge, research,
advocacy Implementation China What's the state of the field? ; where is UN-Habitat's niche in slum upgrading? Shack/Slum Dwellers International (SDI) SWOT
analysis Incremental/ S&S Habitat for Humanity Regional Development Banks CITYNET Development Planning Unit (UK) IHS (The Netherlands) Academia Professional
bodies Habitat International Coalition NGOs Homeless International International Institute for Environment
and Development (UK) MIT, Department of Urban
Studies and Planning Practical Action Target scale and impact Small Large New housing but also... Morocco Tunisia Egypt India Thailand Colombia Brazil Argentina PAC Favelas ISDF BSUP /
RAY Rich country and city experiences too! PROMEBA CODI -
CRH Bangladesh UPPRP Medellin Ethiopia IHDP Relocation Indonesia NUSSP Neighbourhood Upgrading and Shelter Sector Project South Africa UISP South Africa RDP PNRQP Brazil MCMV ... Emerging thoughts:

1. Slum prevention and relocation is for richer countries (e.g. BRICS)
2. The gap is in sub-Saharan Africa, for incremental upgrading ... Chile ... ... ... many pilots ... plethora of small projects ... loads of initiatives ... countless exchanges and workshops ... ... Niche/gap/value added
1. Geographic focus: Sub-Saharan Africa
2. Incremental at citywide scale
3. Institution building and coordination (UN-Habitat's convening power and networks
4. Community participation (prioritization, planning, design, financing, management,...)
5. Upholding human rights and actively mainstreaming 'cross cutting issues' such gender, youth, vulnerable groups...
6. Slum Upgrading AND prevention. UNDER CONSTRUCTION INGOs and donors 1 2 3 Gaps, niche and value added The Asian Coalition for Housing Rights is a regional network of grassroots community organizations, NGO's and professionals actively involved with urban poor development processes in Asian cities. "Upgrading that is:
Citywide in its scale
Implemented by people
Based on concrete actions
Driven by real needs
Strategic in it's planning
Done in partnership
Aiming at structural change" Flagship programme: Asian Coalition for Community Action (ACCA); "Targets:
150 cities in 3 years
750 small upgrading projects ($3,000 each)
100 big housing projects ($40,000 each)
Community savings
Citywide survey and upgrading action plans." No flagship programmes but many activities:
Enumerations and mapping
Horizontal exchanges
Small SU improvement projects (e.g. toilets)
SDI Urban Poor Fund International (UPFI) Shack/Slum Dwellers International (SDI) is a network of community-based organizations of the urban poor in 33 countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. SDI’s mission is to link urban poor communities from cities across the South that have developed successful mobilisation, advocacy, and problem solving strategies. www.sdinet.org Practical Action works alongside communities to find practical solutions to the poverty they face. It sees technology as a vital contributor to people’s livelihoods. Their definition of technology includes physical infrastructure, machinery and equipment, knowledge and skills and the capacity to organise and use all of these. No strict approach for slum upgrading, rather priority area for urban portfolio is basic services:
Sanitation and hygine
Waste management
Infrastructure No flagship global programme for slums, but many smaller ones, e.g:
Home composting in Nepal
Micro enterprise from waste collection in Zimbabwe
Capacity building for improved service delivery
etc. Homeless International supports slum dwellers to improve their lives and find lasting solutions to urban poverty. HI helps communities transform slums by supporting them to work together to secure land, build homes, access safe water and sanitation, and negotiate with governments Two main work streams:
Advocacy and awareness on slums
Grants and finance support for community-led slum upgrading projects (e.g Community Led Finance Fund - CLIFF) 1. Grants through donor funding
2. Guarantee Fund provides bank guarantees to encourage banks to lend to partners in their local currency, for housing and infrastructure projects (current value of the Fund: GBP 1 million)
3. CLIFF is a financing program developed to build organisations that build homes (currently GBP 20 million). www.homeless-international.org http://practicalaction.org http://www.achr.net/ http://www.citiesalliance.org/ The Cities Alliance is a global partnership for urban poverty reduction and the promotion of the role of cities in sustainable development. The overall strategic objectives are to support cities in providing effective local government, an active citizenship and an economy characterised by both public and private investment. Two priority work areas:
1. City Development Strategies
2. Slum Upgrading

Cities Alliance finances projects, and leverages co-financing, but does not implement. SWOT
analysis of Slum Upgrading at
UN-Habitat 4 No flagship global programme(s) but mostly country-specific projects (average of 50,000 - 200,000 USD grant). For example:
SU capacity development project in Ghana, implemented by SDI, focusing on enumeration and SU action planning (Project No. P129329).
Supporting Vietnam's National Urban Upgrading Programme The World Bank Group comprises two main institutions managed by 188 member countries: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA). The IBRD aims to reduce poverty in middle-income and creditworthy poorer countries, while IDA focuses exclusively on the world’s poorest countries. http://www.worldbank.org/ ... ? ... The World Bank funds three basic types of operations:
Investment operations,
Development policy operations
Program-for-Results operations. Investment operations provide funding (in the form of IBRD loans or IDA credits and grants) to governments to cover specific expenditures related to economic and social development projects in a broad range of sectors. Development Policy operations provide untied, direct budget support to governments for policy and institutional reforms aimed at achieving a set of specific development results. Program-for-Results operations support the performance of government programs by strengthening institutions and building capacity. Slum upgrading projects vary in their approach, either:
Hard: e.g. KISUP (165 million USD) (No. 113542) and Mekong Delta Upgrading project (300 million USD) (No. 1139040)
Soft: National SU Strategy for Philippines (400,000 USD) (No. 126971) No one model of SU; with national governments WB undertakes:
Country Poverty reduction strategies (PRS)
SU project preparation
Project financing approval
Implementation of project
Monitoring and evaluation Inter-American Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
African Development Bank
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development As with the World Bank, financing slum upgrading projects through loans for both hard and soft investments. Country Strategies are required to guide investments. Slum upgrading projects vary in their approach, either:
Hard: e.g. IADB loan to Argentina for extension on PROMEBA programme (445 million USD; 87% of which is hard improvements in sanitation, infrastructure, etc). ... 5
UN-Habitat UN-Habitat SU
approach Programmes
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