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World War II
Transcript of World War II
The great loser was Germany, divided into occupied zones and then into two states. Potsdam, Germany Produced more and more airplanes, tanks, and other war supplies
Created new jobs
World War II ended the Great Depression
Women took over many of the jobs
Power of the federal government grew
Rationing, or limited what Americans could buy so supplies could be sent overseas. Americans at War July – August 1945
Truman, (Churchill and then Clement Atlee) and Stalin met in Potsdam, Germany
Drew up a blueprint to disarm Germany and eliminate the Nazi regime
Divided Germany into 4 sections (occupied by France, Britain, U.S. and Soviet Union)
Berlin to be divided up in East (or Soviet Germany)
Set up the Nuremberg Trials to persecute Nazi leaders
Japan must “unconditionally surrender” Potsdam The non-aggression pact was surprising. Hitler and Stalin were seen as natural enemies.
When Hitler talked of taking over new land for Germany, many thought that he meant Russia.
Hitler also hated Communism, the form of government in Russia Hitler and Stalin (the Russian leader) signed a ‘non-aggression pact’.
They promised that neither country would attack the other in the event of war.
As part of the deal, Hitler promised Stalin part of Poland, which he planned to invade soon. August 1939: Germany and Russia signed a non-aggression pact Again, this went against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which banned Germany from uniting with Austria.
However, the arrival of German troops was met with great enthusiasm by many Austrian people. March 1938: Nazi Germany annexed Austria World War II RESULTS OF WORLD WAR II Iron Curtain- military, political, and ideological barrier established between the Soviet bloc and western Europe from 1945 to 1990.
Berlin Wall- Barrier surrounding West Berlin that closed off East Germans access to West Berlin from 1961 to 1989 and served as a symbol of the Cold War's division of East and West Germany. Europe After World War II May 8, 1945
General Eisenhower accepted a surrender by the Third Reich
V-E day = Victory in Europe day
1st part of War was over V-E Day Took place February 1945 before WWII was over
Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill met in Yalta in the Soviet Union to discuss post WWII
Set up United Nations Yalta Conference Captured British troops, May 1940
In May 1940, Germany used Blitzkrieg tactics to attack France and the Netherlands.
British troops were forced to retreat from the beaches of Dunkirk in northern France. May 1940: Germany turned west and invaded France and the Netherlands German troops marching into Warsaw, the capital of Poland. But, the pact allowed Germany to march into Poland without fear of an attack from Russia.
On 3rd September 1939, Germany invaded Poland and started a War with Britain and France. September 1939: Germany invaded Poland Hitler had ordered the occupation of a part of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland (in October 1938). Many hoped that that this would be the last conquest of the Nazis.
However, in March 1939, he ordered his troops to take over the remainder of Czechoslovakia. This was the first aggressive step that suggested that a war in Europe would soon begin. March 1939: Germany invaded Czechoslovakia Hitler soon ordered a programme of rearming Germany January 1933:
Hitler became Chancellor of Germany a. Washington Conference - Limits on size of country's navies
b. Kellogg-Briand pact - condemned war as a way to solving conflicts 3. Opposition to war (Pacifism) 4. Isolationism of Major Powers Why? The war cost $330 billion -- 10 times the cost of WWI & as much as all previous federal spending since 1776 US Debt 1945 - $98 billion A. War Costs Quick Facts August 15, 1945: Japan offers unconditional surrender
September 2, 1945: V-J Day = Victory in Japan Day (Formal surrender) V-J Day April 30, 1945 Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide (gun shot and cyanide)
Bodies burned in street
Cover of Time magazine May 7, 1945 The end of Hitler Life in Internment Camps The Rhineland was a region of Germany that was ‘demilitarised’ after the Treaty of Versailles. Germany was not allowed to have troops in the region.
Hitler’s actions showed how he was willing to directly challenge the treaty. March 1936: German troops marched into the Rhineland 2. Begins with Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and continues with Hitler . . . 1. Appeasement: give dictators what they want and hope that they won’t want anything else B. This led to policies of “Appeasement” 4. Isolationism of Major Powers Why? Joseph Stalin
Russian Leader Franklin Delano Roosevelt
US President Major Leaders 11 million died as a result of the HOLOCAUST
(6 million Jews + 5 million others) 21.3 million Russians (7.7 million civilians) 50 million people died (compared to 15 million in WWI) B. Human Costs Quick Facts B. Human Costs Quick Facts Benito Mussolini
Italy Adolf Hitler
Nazi Germany Major Leaders 1939-1945
US involvement 1941-1945 1945 Sept. - Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japanese Surrender May - Germans Surrender 1941 Dec. 7 – Japan bombs Pearl Harbor; US enters the War Sept. 3 -Britain & France declare war on Germany Sept.1 - Germany invades Poland (official start to the war) 1939 When? (major powers) (major powers) Japan Italy Germany Russia United States
Joined December 1941 France
(note: France surrendered to Germany in 1940 (after 6 weeks of fighting) Great Britain Axis Allies Who? US declares war on Japan & other Axis powers Effect? Surprise attack by the Japanese on American forces in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii What? USS Arizona Sinking in Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor: “a date which will live in infamy”- December 7, 1941 Meanwhile … in the Pacific Overview of WWII Rosie the Riveter Cultural icon symbolizing women in the workforce during WWII Which countries fought? 1939 - The Beginning a. WWI did not seem to solve much
b. People began to think that we’d got into WWI for the wrong reasons (greedy American businessmen!) A. Why was the U.S. Isolationist?
1. Great Depression (problems at home)
2. Perceptions of WWI 2) Hitler provided scapegoats for Germany’s problems (foreigners, Jews, communists, Roma (Gypsies), mentally ill, homosexuals)
3) Kristallnacht - vandalism & destruction of Jewish property & synagogues 2. World-wide Depression Why? (underlying causes of WWII) 1923 - Wallpapering with German Deutchmarks 1) Hitler seemed to provide solutions to Germany’s problems B. Desperate people turn to desperate leaders A. The Depression made Germany’s debt even worse 2. World-wide Depression Why? (underlying causes of WWII) Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson
during negotiations for the Treaty 1) Allies collect $ to pay back war debts to U.S.
2) Germany must pay $57 trillion (modern equivalent)
3) Bankrupted the German economy & embarrassed Germans B. War Reparations A. Germany lost land to surrounding nations Treaty had ended WWI- remember Germany was being punished for its role in WWI Why? (underlying causes of WWII) Hideki Tojo
Japanese Prime Minister Major Leaders Fascism: military government with based on racism & nationalism with strong support from the business community Military Dictatorship (Japan) Fascist Dictatorship (Germany, Italy) Communist Dictatorship (USSR) Totalitarianism A. In a Totalitarian country, individual rights are not viewed as important as the needs of the nation 3. Rise of Totalitarian Regimes Why? 1. Treaty of Versailles Winston Churchill
British Prime Minister But in May, 1941, Hitler ordered a change of tactics. He decided to halt the bombing of Britain and launch an attack against Russia. He betrayed Stalin and ignored the promises he had made.
This was a bold move that would prove to be an important turning point in the War. Operation Barbarossa, June 1941 Adolf Hitler tours Paris after his successful invasion. Britain now stood alone as the last remaining enemy of Hitler’s Germany in Western Europe. By June 1940, France had surrendered to the Germans For the following nine months, the German air force (Luftwaffe) launched repeated bombing raids on British towns and cities. This was known as the BLITZKRIEG or “Lightning War” and was an attempt to bomb Britain into submission. September 1940-May 1941: the Blitz US secretly meets with England to commit to defeating Germany Atlantic Charter London Firefighter Tackles an Air Raid Blaze US “lent” war materials to cash-strapped Great Britain Lend-Lease - 1939 Roosevelt provided aid to the Allies: US Assistance – prior to entering war Important Battles Tactics, Weapons, and the Holocaust The Aftermath Attack on Pearl Harbor Nuclear Bombings of Japan How Did It All End? Why? Totalitarianism Communist Dictatorship
(USSR - Russia) Fascist Dictatorship
(Germany & Italy) Military Dictatorship
(Japan) 4. Isolationism of Major Powers Moved to Utah, California, Arizona, Wyoming, Arkansas, and Idaho
Had to wear identification tags
Over 17,000 Japanese Americans served in Army units even though their friends and families were being locked away by their own country. Problems Continue Some military leaders distrusted Japanese Americans
Were afraid they would help the “enemy”
Roosevelt ordered 110,000 Japanese Americans into “relocation camps”
Like prisons, fenced in with barbed wire
Soldiers guarded the camps with guns
Had to sell their homes, businesses, and belongings. Problems for Japanese Americans 200,000 Japanese died due to the Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Hiroshima -August 6, 1945
“Little Boy” -In 43 seconds, the city collapsed to dust
Nagasaki -August 9, 1945
“Fat Man”-Leveled half of the city Manhattan Project
(development of the atomic bomb) Battle of the Coral Sea- May 1942
Battle of Midway- June 1942
Iwo Jima- March 1945
Battle of Okinawa- June 1945 War in the Pacific Holocaust- the killing of approximately six million European Jews during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored extermination by Nazi Germany. Two-thirds of the population of nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust were killed.
NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization- alliance of sixteen Euro-Atlantic countries that is dedicated to the maintaining democratic freedom by means of collective defense
Cold War- A state of political tension and military rivalry between nations that stops short of full-scale war, especially that which existed between the United States and Soviet Union following World War II. RESULTS OF WORLD WAR II The videos do not have the answers!