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Leadership Theory

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by

Kerry Day

on 9 September 2014

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Transcript of Leadership Theory

LEADERSHIP THEORY & EVOLUTION
Great Man Approach
Trait Approach
Behavioral Approaches
Situational Contingency Approaches
Influence Theories
Reciprocal Leadership Approaches
Chaos Theories
Leadership Theory
Leadership is based on hereditary properties
Intermarriage of the fittest; Darwinistic
Natural abilities include power and influence
Leaders born, not made
Criticism:
Ignores women
No research to support hereditary factors
Leadership only exists within a few
Great Man Approaches
Assumed leaders had specific superior characteristics or traits that differentiated them from followers
Intelligence, height, self-confidence
Some possess a natural ability to lead
Criticisms:
Situation not considered; may not transfer
No set list of traits have proved success
Difficult to measure and observe
Ignores leadership behaviors and follower’s motivations
Trait Approaches
Influence
Based on the notion of charisma
Influence based on perceptions of followers
Often occurs in times of crisis
Looking for a leader to challenge “status quo”
Criticisms:
Lacks research on the effect charisma has on leader-follower interaction
Others have been successful in leadership without charisma
What leaders do – behaviors, skills, styles
One best way to lead
Focus on people and production important to success
Criticisms:
Ignores situational factors and group process
Failure to identify which behaviors are effective in varying situations
Behavioral Approaches
Leaders should vary approach or behaviors based on context/situation
Different behaviors for different situations
Situation will determine who will emerge as a leader
Leader is the product of the situation
Effectiveness dependent on elements of the situation
Criticisms:
Ambiguous; difficult to research
Situational Contingency
Relational and reciprocal nature of the leader-follower interaction
Mutual goals and motivations
Engages leaders and followers
Values contributions of participants
Leadership can be demonstrated anywhere
Shares power and authority
Inclusive leadership among interdependent people
Reciprocal
Chaos - Order without predictability
World is inherently unpredictable but has a pattern
Multiple realities
World that cannot be controlled
Initial conditions – where something begins determines where it will end up
“Anding” – making a connection with someone or something (synergy!)
Complex problems may require multiple partial solutions
Self-organizing systems shape behavior through surrounding environment and those involved
Chaos or Systems
Bass, B.M., & Steidlmeier, P. (1998, September 24). Ethics and Authentic Trandsromational Leadership. Retrieved from https://www.vanguard.edu/uploadedFiles/
Keight, K.m. (2008). The case for servant leadership. Westfield, Ind; The Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership.
Latour, S.M., & Rast V.J. (2004). Dynamic followership. Air and Space Power Journal, Retrieved from http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/
References
Transformational Leadership
Process where leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation
4 components
Idealized influence- envisioning, confident, and sets high standards for emulation.
Inspiration motivation- challenges followers and engaging in shared goals
Intellectual stimulation- helps followers question assumptions and generate more creative solutions to problems.
Individualized consideration- each follower is an individual and provided with coaching, mentoring, and opportunities for growth.
The welfare of others is more important than your own
Servant Leadership
Assumption that service is a fundamental, universal human value
Serve to serve first
Love people and want to help them
Leader’s role is to facilitate (not control) another’s process; facilitate what’s happening, not what you think should be happening
Doing good without show or fuss; without seeking credit, recognition, or reward
Power Model
– Leadership is about how to accumulate and wield power, how to make people do things, how to attack and win.
Focus on having and gaining power
What the leader wants, not what’s good for group
Leader likely to do just enough to keep power
Service Model
– To identify and meet needs of others
What do people need and how do I help them get it?
Power as a tool, not an end; will give it up when it’s no longer needed
People trust the leader and gift them power; no need for others to take it away if it’s being used well
What servant leaders do:
Encourage participation and consensus building
Create a community of leaders
Generate a shared vision
Use culturally effective communication
Weave partnerships and connections
Key Practices:
Self-awareness – Know strengths and weaknesses; impact of words and deeds
Listening – Listen first; gather feedback in as many ways possible
Inverting the pyramid
Developing colleagues – Do those served grow?
Coaching, not controlling
Unleashing the energy and intelligence of others
Foresight – intuitive insight about how past, present and future connect
Followership Theory
Leaders and followers are equally important but have different activities
Important to be effective followers
Pyramid - upside down
Effective followership is an individual stepping into a lead position while simultaneously fulfilling their follower roles.
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