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Causes of WWI (-Dec 1913)
Transcript of Causes of WWI (-Dec 1913)
France defeated and humiliated
Challenged Anglo-French supremacy
Led to revanchist policy against Germany
Gave impression that modern wars would be quick
France later sought a Franco-Russian Alliance to contain Germany
circa 1900 - Pressure from militaristic groups and from capitalists to find new markets and sources of raw materials abroad -
led to tension as much of the world was already claimed by other European powers
- Navy used to protect trade routes and empire; economic competition from Germany and the USA
Looking for allies
- Forms Alliance with Japan
Allowed Britain to return much of her fleet from the Far - East
Heightened naval strength back in Europe Increased her presence back in Europe
Circa 1900 - considerd itself the "champion of the Slavic people”
Differed with Austria-Hungary on the Slav independence movements and the "Eastern Question" - tension
1900 - Second Naval Law passed, aiming to expand the navy
Led to Britain seeing Germany as a threat to its naval dominance
1903- King Alexander of Serbia Assassination Replaced by King Peter (wanted to reduce influence of Austria Hungary in Serbia)
Caused anxiety- Strong Serbia taking them down
Serbians related to Russia, Russia becomes a threat
Anglo-French Entente 1904
Germany sees as an act of aggression - perhaps leads to Germany getting involved in the Moroccan Crisis to prove the Entente's frailty
Moroccan Crisis (1905)
France tries to colonize Morocco.
Germany --> tries to prove the weakness of the Anglo-French alliance by demanding an international conference, thinking that Britain would not back France
1906- Humiliating defeat in the Algeçiras Conference for the Moroccan Crisis
- Germany fails: the UK fully supports France, leads to a stronger Entente with military conferences between France and Britain
- Germany also seen as primary threat
Another loss for Germany increasing tension
: Anglo-Russian entente formed, completing the triple entente
- The Second Moroccan Crisis → Germany sends gunboat
to a small port on Morocco. Britain supports France, forcing Germany to step down.
→ German public opinion was hostile to the settlement and critical of their government as it was another failure for the policy of
- The entente between Britain and France was strengthened.
- Increased tension and hostility between Germany and Britain.
1912 - Naval negotiations begin between Britain and France. →
This was caused by Germany’s behavior in Morocco. Germany had underestimated the Entente between Britain and France.
The Balkan Crisis - Main Parties Involved: Austria-Hungary, Russia, Germany
- 1912 - The First Balkan War
- Serbia, Greece and Montenegro forms a Balkan alliance
Forces Turkey from the Balkans.
Sir Edward Grey stops the war spreading through a peace conference in London.
However, Austria feels threatened and contains Serbia by creating Albania. More resentment between Serbia and Austria-Hungary arises.
- 1913 - The Second Balkan War
- A war with Bulgaria allowed Serbia to double in size. Austria - Hungary is now convinced that it needs to crush Serbia.
Serbia’s success encouraged the strong nationalist feelings within Serbia. Serbia also doubles in size and proves its military strength. Austria-Hungary now feels that it is necessary to crush Serbia.
Alate & Kim & Schweizer & Williams
- Britain agrees a commitment to the defense of France by 1913 →
Again, caused by Germany’s acts of aggression.
Germany feels surrounded with France and England to the west and Russia to the east
1908 Bosnian Crisis:
Austria moves soldiers in between Bosnia & Herzegovina. Opposed by the Serbs and by Russia; Germany backs Austria-Hungary. Russia accepts the ultimatum presented by Germany and Austria, forcing Serbia to back down
Tensions grow between Russia-Serbia and Austria-Germany. Russia defeated by backing off, embarrassing defeat. Germany just wins. Strengthened relationship between France and Russia. GB/France realize that Germany and Austria-Hungary are willing to threaten european war