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LECTURE 3

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Dr Wan Ramlee

on 25 September 2013

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Transcript of LECTURE 3

LECTURE 3
DU PONT TEN PRINCIPLES OF SAFETY MANAGEMENT
All injuries and occupational illnesses are preventable.
Management is directly responsible for doing this.
Safety is a condition of employment.
Training is required.
Safety audits and inspections must be carried out.
Deficiencies must be corrected promptly.
All unsafe practices, incidents and injury accidents will be investigated.
Safety away from work is as important as safety at work.
Accident prevention is cost‑effective; the highest cost is human suffering.
Employees must be actively involved.

ACCIDENT AND PRODUCTIVITY
Principles of Incident Prevention
3 Reasons Incident Prevention
Direct vs. Indirect Cost
DU PONT Ten Principles Of Safety Management

BIRD AND LOFTUS’ DOMINO THEORY
1. Lack of Control – Management
Control in this instance refers to the four functions of a manager: planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Examples of this domino are purchasing substandard equipment or tools, not providing adequate training, or failing to install adequate engineering controls.
2. Basic Cause(s) - Origin(s)
The basic causes are frequently classified into a personal factors group and a job factors group.
Personal factors may be lack of knowledge or skill, improper motivation, and physical or mental problems; etc.
Job factors include inadequate work standards, inadequate design or maintenance, normal tool or equipment wear and tear, and abnormal tool usage.

TEST QUESTIONS
Describe the summaries of the Hienrich Domino Theory.
Describe the main points of Domino Theory by Robert W. Heinrich(1930’s).
Herbert W. Heinrich (1930’s), developed Domino Theory and promoted control of workers behaviour. List explain the five main points stated in this theory

Five main points or summaries of Herbert W. Heinrich (1930’s), Domino Theory that promoted the control of workers behaviour.
Negative trait or factor is present in a person as a result of ancestry (inherited) / as a result of (acquired) social environment
Negative trait or factor acquired/inherited may lead to fault of a person (due to unsafe practice or unsafe condition)
Unsafe act resulted/creates an unsafe condition
Accident resulted from above are typical of fall or impact with the moving object
Injures from above usually in the form of laceration or fractures

BACKGROUND: THE DOMINO SAFETY THEORY
Developed by pioneer industrial safety experts H.W. Heinrich and Alfred Lateiner to provide a graphic sense of how industrial injuries can occur and be avoided.
Heinrich’s Domino Theory
• 88% Caused by Unsafe Acts
• 10% Caused by Unsafe Conditions
• 02% Are Unavoidable
Focused on worker behaviour and not management
Caused people to think that safety is about policing workers.

DOMINO THEORY
The pre-contact phase:
are the events or conditions that lead up to the accident.
The contact phase:
is the phase when the accident actually occurs.
The post-contact phase:
refers to the results of the accident.

THEORIES OF ACCIDENT CAUSATION
Domino Theory
Human Factors
Accident/Incident
Epidemiology
Systems
Combination
Behavioral

CAUSES OF ACCIDENT:
Root causes:
the real problem of the accidents which are hidden/underlying and can be categorised as follows:

A. Personal Factors
B. Job Factors
C. Supervisory Performance
D. Management Policy & Decisions

WHAT IS AN INCIDENT?
An incident:
An event or ‘near-miss’ which has the potential to cause harm
Near miss:
an event which did not result in injury or damage to property but had the potential to do so
shares the same root causes as an accident. It is only because of chance that no harm or damage occurred
needs similar attention as an accident

TEST QUESTIONS
What are the Principles of Incident Prevention?
Why need Accident Prevention Costs
What is the difference between Direct Vs. Indirect Cost?
What is the difference between Direct Vs. Indirect Cost? Sketch an ice-berg with the correct level of proportion above and below the water and label it correctly.
Identify the three main reasons for a need of an Accident Prevention Costs.

3 Reasons Why Prevent Accidents?
1. Legal Requirement: Employees should not be exposed to risks and injuries while at work. People not associated to the work environment must be protected. There is a need for the Duty of Care of employer on to their employees.
2. Practicing Human Rights: Many governments realize that poor OSH performance results in cost to the government (e.g. through SOCSO payments to the disables, medical treatment, and loss of "employability“ workers). Employers sustain costs such as legal fees, fines, compensatory damages, investigation time, lost production, lost goodwill from the workforce, customers and community.
3. Business Needs: OSH requirements are embeded in civil law and/or criminal law; it is the moral obligations by businesses to uphold the need of the laws and regulations in protecting the employees while achieving business profits.

PRINCIPLES OF INCIDENT PREVENTION
Accident prevention is good management.
Management and workers must fully cooperate
Top management must lead.
There must be an OSH policy
Must have organisation and resources to implement policy
Best available information (and technology) must be applied

MARCUM’S DOMINO THEORY
According to C. E. Marcum’s 1978 Seven Domino Sequence of Misactsidents
A misactsident is an identifiable sequence of misacts associated with inadequate task preparation which could lead to substandard performance and miscompensated risks.
Marcum also includes the cost aspect of a loss.
Like the previous theory, Marcum states that management is ultimately responsible to ensure that the workplace is designed with adequate controls to protect employee.
Through this domino theory, Marcum shows that accidents can be prevented by the management by properly training the employees as well as designing adequate controls into the work process.

BIRD AND LOFTUS’ DOMINO THEORY
3. Immediate Cause(s) - Symptoms.
The primary symptoms of all incidents are unsafe acts and unsafe conditions.
4. Incident – Contact
An undesired event occurs. The accidents are often represented by the eleven accident types:
stuck-by - caught-in
fall-to-below - struck-against
caught-on - Overexertion
contact-by - caught-between
exposure - contact-with
foot-level- fall
5. People – Property – Loss
Result of the accident. The effects are property or environment damage or injury to personnel.

Birds and Loftus Domino Theory of Loss Control Theory
Frank Bird (1970) developed Loss Control Theory.
Suggested that underlying cause of accidents are lack of management controls and poor management decisions.
Problem:
Not so popular: blames management (responsibility and control).
This theory states that there are five series factors that could influence an accident.
However, this theory states that the ultimate responsibility for the welfare of the employees lie with the management of an organization.
It is the manager of the organization who can instill the controls necessary to prevent the initiation of the domino effect.



Herbert W. Heinrich Axioms ( a universal accepted principles or rules) of Industrial Safety
Injuries result from a completed series of factors, one of which is the accident itself.
An accident can occur only as the result of an unsafe act by a person and/or a physical or mechanical hazard.
Most accidents are the result of unsafe behavior of people.
An unsafe act by a person or an unsafe condition does not always immediately result in an accident/injury.
The reasons why people commit unsafe acts can serve as helpful guides in selecting corrective actions.
The severity of an accident is largely fortuitous and the accident that caused it is largely preventable.
The best accident prevention techniques are analogous with the best quality and productivity techniques.
Management should assume responsibility for safety since it is the best position to get results.
The supervisor is the key person in the prevention of industrial accidents.
In addition to the direct cost of an accident (i.e., compensation, liability claims, medical costs, and hospital expenses), there are also hidden or indirect cost.
DOMINO THEORIES
There are three different domino theories of accident causation:
1. Heinrich’s Domino Theory,
2. Bird and Loftus’ Theory, and
3. Marcum’s Domino Theory.
Each domino theory presents a different explanation for the cause of accidents, however, each theory is predicated on the fact that there are three phases to any accident.
The three phases are the pre-contact phase, the contact phase and the post contact phase.

TEST QUESTIONS
a) List the four contributing factors to an accidents related to the immediate causes or that provide the symptoms to an accident.
b) Identify the root causes of accidents or the real problem at the management level?

CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS:
Immediate Causes:
are contributing factors to accidents and are associated to the unsafe acts and unsafe conditions can be categorised as follows:

Human behaviour
Design of equipment and plant
Systems & procedures including use of materials
Environmental Surroundings

ACCIDENT CAUSATION MODEL
An accident is the result of a sequent of an immediate cause/s and an basic/root cause/s.
Results of the accident : injuries, harm or damage
Incident: the event leading to the accident
Immediate causes – the observable/visible/noticeable
Basic causes – the real/conceal/root problems

TEST QUESTIONS
There is a consensus amongst safety engineers that there are four distinct parts in the anatomy of an accident. List these factors.
List and identify four (4) facts for each of the factors below that contribute to accidents which is associated to as the Immediate Causes (the unsafe acts and unsafe conditions or symptoms)
List and identify FOUR(4) facts for each of the factor below associated with the Root Causes Of Accidents (The Real Problem based on these factors)

WHAT IS AN ACCIDENT?
An accident is:
an unexpected, unplanned event in a sequence of events,
that occurs through a combination of causes
which result in:
physical harm (injury, ill-health or disease) to an individual,
damage to property,
a near-miss, a loss
any combination of these effects.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
To define what is accident
To explain the causes of accidents & role of management control
To explain 3 theory on accident causation
To itemize cost involved in an accident

INCIDENT & LOSS PREVENTION
1. Causes of Accident
2. Theories of Accident Causation
3. Accident Productivity

Indirect Costs

Direct Costs

Understanding Direct Vs. Indirect Accident Cost Using an Iceberg Concept:
It is estimated that for every $1 in direct accident costs (that we pay at the time of accident), there are anywhere from $4 to $11 in indirect or “hidden” costs.(that we need to pay later over the years due to heal the injuries or easing the pain and difficulties)

Injury

Accident

Unsafe act/condition

Fault of a person

Ancestry/social environment

Injury

Accident

Unsafe act/condition

Fault of a person

Ancestry/social environment

EARLY THEORY OF ACCIDENTS are related to the failure in the control of unsafe act /unsafe condition

TYE/PEARSON/BIRD 1969-1975

1

3

50

80

400

Near misses

Property

First aid

Lost days

Fatal / Serious injury
The Accident Pyramid
Full transcript