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Descriptive Chemistry

AP Chemistry review

Mr. S. Soderholm

on 5 May 2010

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Transcript of Descriptive Chemistry

Descriptive Chemistry Redox Metathesis Patterns that bridge
Redox and Metathesis: Acid - base reactions + reactive metals (reduction potential < 0) --> H2 + salt + carbonate --> CO2 + H2O + salt Bronsted-Lowry: HA + B --> A- + HB+ Acid
proton donor Acids: strong acids,
acetic acid CH3COOH
hydrofluoric acid HF
ammonium (NH4+) salts Base
proton acceptor Bases: hydroxides,
ammonia NH3
"bi-" ions HCO3-, etc Products
tranfer an H+ from acid to base Arrhenius H+ + OH- --> H2O Acid show as H+ if strong
show formula if weak Base Show as OH- if soluble
show formula if insoluble/slightly soluble water Lewis A + B: --> A-B Acid
electron pair
acceptor Acids: strong acids,
acetic acid CH3COOH
hydrofluoric acid HF
ammonium (NH4+) salts Base
electron pair
donor Bases: hydroxides,
ammonia NH3
"bi-" ions HCO3-, etc products bonded with
coordinate covalent bond + ionized salt (if ions shown on left) H+ + OH: --> H-OH H+ or metal cation OH- or something else
with unshared pairs of e-
usu. concentrated often a complex ion
like Fe[CN]6 3- Precipitation ALWAYS check for this no matter
what other rxn type is occurring. Reactions of Acids (redox - H+ is the reducing agent) (metathesis - really a B-L acid/base rxn
in which H2CO3 decomposes) Acidic/Basic Solution Formation Group 1 metals + H2O --> H2 + hydroxide (redox - H2O is the oxidizing agent, metal is oxidized) Group II metals + hot H2O --> H2 + hydroxide metal hydride + H2O --> H2 + hydroxide (redox - H2O is the oxidizing agent, H- is oxidized) metal oxide + H2O --> hydroxide (metathesis) Bases Nonmetal oxide + H2O --> acid (metathesis, usually
add 1 oxygen to the oxide, the number of H+'s necessary for the resulting polyatomic ion) Example: acid rain from sulfur
and nitrogen oxides Acids EZ Redox Hard Redox f.k.a "single displacement"
But now, you only show the two species reacting Look for
a metal combined with an ionic compound
M + N+ --> M+ + N
a nonmetal (often a gaseous halogen) combined with an ionic compound
X2 + 2Y- --> 2X- + Y2 You HAVE to know
the solubility rules! Usually in "acidified" solution Look for these common
oxidizing agents You may have to use the
"lost and found" method
to balance these equations. The reducing agent:
metal --> a common cation
monatomic anion --> an elemental nonmetal
oxyanion (like sulfite) --> more oxidized anion (like sulfate)
organic compound --> CO2 + H2O if organic General reaction for forming complex ions:
M + B: --> [M(B)2n]
n+ 2n (appropriate
charge) acid (cation) base (ligand) complex ion Combustion Synthesis from elements (organic) + O2 --> CO2 + H2O Balancing: do C and H first, then O.
Multiply whole equation by 2 if you get
x/2 as the coefficient for O2. A + B --> AB Form the most reasonable product (often ionic, so cancel charges) LOOK OUT!
Often, an element is "burned in air."
This is synthesis (element + O2 --> oxide)
not combustion (no H2O if there's no H,
no CO2 if there's no C) Lewis acid-base synthesis: BH3 + :PH3 --> H3B-PH3 acid (usu. a
boron cpd) base (at least 1
lone pair of e-) Bound with a coordinate
covalent bond Decomposition (usually metathesis
occasionally redox) single compound --> elements Watch for a SINGLE COMPOUND being HEATED Special case: carbonates... carbonate --> CO2 + oxide hydrogen carbonate --> CO2 + carbonate
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