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Valeri San Juan

on 25 September 2013

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Are the illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, larynx, pharynx
This commonly includes:
common cold

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi.
Acute bronchitis is characterized by the development of a cough or small sensation in the back of the throat, with or without the production of sputum (mucus that is expelled)
Chronic bronchitis, is characterized by the presence of a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years.

Influenza, commonly referred to as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses), that affects birds and mammals.
The most common symptoms of the disease are chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness/fatigue and general discomfort. Sore throat, fever and coughs are the most frequent symptoms.

 Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common condition that will catch up with most people who live into older age. Blood pressure is the force of blood pressing against the walls of your arteries. When it's too high, it raises the heart's workload and can cause serious damage to the arteries. Over time, uncontrolled high blood pressure increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease.

 High blood pressure is sometimes called a silent killer because it may have no outward symptoms for years. In fact, one in five people with the condition don't know they have it. Internally, it can quietly damage the heart, lungs, blood vessels, brain, and kidneys if left untreated. It's a major risk factor for strokes and heart attacks in the U.S.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially serious infectious disease that mainly affects your lungs. The bacteria that cause tuberculosis are spread from one person to another through tiny droplets released into the air via coughs and sneezes.
Unintentional weight loss
Night sweats
Loss of appetite

Chickenpox (varicella) is a common illness that causes an itchy rash and red spots or blisters (pox) all over the body. It is most common in children, but most people will get chickenpox at some point in their lives if they have not had the chickenpox vaccine.
Chickenpox can cause problems for pregnant women, newborns, teens and adults, and people who have immune system problems that make it hard for the body to fight infection. Chickenpox usually isn't a serious health problem in healthy children. But a child with chickenpox needs to stay home from school. And you may need to miss work in order to care for your child.
 After you have had chickenpox, you are not likely to get it again. But the virus stays in your body long after you get over the illness. If the virus becomes active again, it can cause a painful viral infection called shingles.
 Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It can spread easily. You can get it from an infected person who sneezes, coughs, or shares food or drinks. You can also get it if you touch the fluid from a chickenpox blister.
 A person who has chickenpox can spread the virus even before he or she has any symptoms. Chickenpox is most easily spread from 2 to 3 days before the rashappears until all the blisters have crusted over.
 You are at risk for chickenpox if you have never had the illness and have not had the chickenpox vaccine. If someone you live with gets chickenpox, your risk is even higher because of the close contact.

Cardiovascular disease (also called heart disease) is a class of diseases that involve the heart, the blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins) or both.
Cardiovascular disease refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, principally cardiac disease, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease
The causes of cardiovascular disease are diverse but atherosclerosis and/or hypertension are the most common.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of deaths worldwide, though since the 1970s, cardiovascular mortality rates have declined in many high-income countries

Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite.
People who get malaria are typically very sick and may die.
People usually get malaria when they are bitten by a certain female mosquito. When a mosquito bites an infected person, a small amount of blood is taken which contains the malaria parasite. About a week later, when the mosquito bites another person, the parasites mix with the mosquito’s saliva and are injected into that person.

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection. The infection causes flu-like illness, and occasionally develops into a potentially lethal complication called severe dengue.
Dengue Fever (DF) or Dengue Hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is an illnesses not new in our country. It is a disease that continues to scare us every time one develops fever especially during the rainy months. Although it has been known to be more common during the rainy season, it has become an all-year round disease because of the unpredictable rains we experience even during the non-rainy months. This dreaded febrile illness affects infants, young children and adults of all walks of life. Presently, there is still no specific treatment for dengue.

Cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular diseases refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins).
The term 'cardiovascular disease' is used to cover a group of problems related to the heart or the body's overall circulatory system. These problems include heart attacks, strokes, arrythmias, congestive heart failure, ischemia, hypertension, angina, and other dysfunctions. For the sake of brevity, this article will focus on heart disease and its prevention. The reason for concentrating on heart disease is simple. Someone in the United States dies every minute from a heart attack

Is a form of acute respiratory infection that affects the lungs. Alveoli are filled with pus and fluid, which makes breathing painful and limits oxygen intake.
Pneumonia kills an estimated 1.2 million children under the age of five years every year more than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined.

Chest pain
Difficulty in breathing

Unforeseen and unplanned event or circumstance, often with lack of intention or necessity.
Deaths per 100,000 population: 39.1%

Taking shortcuts
Being overconfident
Ignoring safety procedures
Starting a job with incomplete instructions
Poor housekeeping
Mental Distractionsfrom Work
Failure to Pre-Plan your Work

Is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains. Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air.
Over 95% of TB deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, and it is among the top three cause of death for women aged 15 to 44.

Spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit respiratory fluids through the air.


Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease (CLRD) is a serious illness affecting millions of people. Currently the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, CLRD has been one of the leading causes of death in the world since 2000 and is projected to move into third place worldwide by 2020 . While mortality rates for the top two leading causes of death in the state and nation, heart disease and cancer, respectively, are decreasing, deaths from CLRD continue to rise.

Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar), resistance to insulin, or both. Diabetes is a chronic condition. DM exhibits wide geographic variation in incidence and prevalence Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin, an anabolic hormone.


Perinatal infections include bacterial or viral illnesses that can be passed from a mother to her baby either while the baby is still in the uterus, during the delivery process, or shortly after birth. Maternal infection can, in some cases, cause complications at birth. The mother may or may not experience active symptoms of the infection during the pregnancy. The most serious and most common perinatal infections, and the impact of these diseases on the mother and infant, are discussed below in alphabetical order. It is important to note that men can become infected and can transmit many of these infections to other women. The sexual partners of women who have these infections also should seek medical treatment.

In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly for the young and the elderly. Although it is often confused with other influenza-like illnesses, especially the common cold, influenza is a more severe disease than the common cold and is caused by a different type of virus.

Influenza may produce nausea and vomiting, particularly in children.

Typically, influenza is transmitted through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus. Influenza can also be transmitted by direct contact with bird droppings or nasal secretions, or through contact with contaminated surfaces.

Airborne aerosols have been thought to cause most infections, although which means of transmission is most important is not absolutely clear. As the virus can be inactivated by soap, frequent hand washing reduces the risk of infection.

A chronic lower respiratory disease are a group of disease that occur in the lower lungs and these diseases include the following..
Chronic bronchitis and other respiratory illnesses are all grouped together under the name chronic lower respiratory disease.
It is a preventable and treatable disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to noxious particles or gases (typically from exposure to cigarette smoke). Treatment can lessen symptoms and improve quality of life for those with CLRD.

The Top 3 Certain Conditions Originating in the Perinatal Period

Genital herpes

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States, causing more than 4 million infections each year. The majority of women with chlamydial infection experience no obvious symptoms. The infection affects the reproductive tract and causes pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy (the fertilized egg implants somewhere other than in the uterus). 

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus in the herpes virus family. It is found in saliva, urine, and other body fluids and can be spread through sexual contact or other more casual forms of physical contact like kissing. In adults, CMV may cause mild symptoms of swollen lymph glands, fever, and fatigue.

Genital herpes
Genital Herpes, which is usually caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), is a sexually transmitted disease that causes painful sores on the genitals. Women who have their first outbreak of genital herpes during pregnancy are at high risk of miscarriage or delivering a low birth weight baby.

Are obese
Are often stressed or anxious
Drink too much alcohol (more than one drink per day for women and more than two drinks per day for men)
Eat too much salt in your diet
Have a family history of high blood pressure
Have diabetes

 The DASH Diet- Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
 Regular exercise helps lower your blood pressure. involves eating more fruits, vegetables, whole-grain foods, low-fat dairy, fish, poultry, and nuts.
 Diuretics are often the first choice if diet and exercise changes aren't enough.
 Beta-blockers work by slowing the heart rate, which means that the heart doesn't have to work as hard.
 ACE inhibitors reduce your body's supply of angiotensin II -- a substance that makes blood vessels contract and narrow.
 Calcium channel blockers slow the movement of calcium into the cells of the heart and blood vessels.
 Other medications that relax the blood vessels include vasodilators, alpha blockers, and central agonists.

You or your child may feel sick, tired, and not very hungry. The chickenpox rash usually appears about 1 or 2 days after the first symptoms start. Some children get the chickenpox rash without having a fever or other early symptoms.
It usually takes 14 to 16 days to get the symptoms of chickenpox after you have been around someone with the virus. This is called the incubation period.
After a chickenpox red spot appears, it usually takes about 1 or 2 days for the spot to go through all its stages. This includes blistering, bursting, drying, and crusting over. New red spots will appear every day for up to 5 to 7 days.
You or your child can go back to work, school, or day care when all blisters have crusted over. This is usually about 10 days after the first symptoms start
Coronary artery disease ( also known as coronary heart disease and ischaemic heart disease)
Cardiomyopathy - diseases of cardiac muscle
Hypertensive heart disease - diseases of the heart secondary to high blood pressure
Heart failure
Cor pulmonale - a failure at the right side of the heart with respiratory system involvement
Cardiac dysrhythmias - abnormalities of heart rhythm
Inflammatory heart disease
Endocarditis – inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. The structures most commonly involved are the heart valves.
Inflammatory cardiomegaly
Myocarditis – inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart.
Valvular heart disease
Cerebrovascular disease - disease of blood vessels that supplies to the brain such as stroke
Peripheral arterial disease - disease of blood vessels that supplies to the arms and legs
Congenital heart disease - heart structure malformations existing at birth
Rheumatic heart disease - heart muscles and valves damage due to rheumatic fever caused by streptococcal bacteria infection
Coronary Artery Disease
Enlarged Heart (Cardiomegaly)
Heart Attack
Irregular Heart Rhythm
Atrial Fibrillation
Tool: Heart Rhythm Disorders
Heart Valve Disease
Sudden Cardiac Death
Congenital Heart Disease
Enlarged Heart (Cardiomegaly)
Heart Muscle Disease (Cardiomyopathy)
Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
Pericardial Effusion
Marfan Syndrome
Heart Murmurs

Morbidity refers to the state of being diseased or unhealthy within a population
Morbidity refers an incidence of ill health in a population
Mortality is the term used for the number of people who died within a population
Mortality refers to the incidence of death or the number of deaths in a population.

Diarrhea is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per dayThe most common cause.
  is gastroenteritis.
Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with modest amounts of salts and zinc tablets are the treatment of choice and have been estimated to have saved 50 million children in the past 25 years.
 In cases where ORS is not available, homemade solutions are often used.

There are many effective antimalarial drugs available.
stay indoors between dusk and dawn
wear long sleeves, long trousers and socks
apply insect repellent containing DEET to exposed skin
close doors and windows or protect them with screens
switch on fans or air conditioners
use a mosquito-proof bed net
spray the inside of the house with an aerosol insecticide
use mosquito mats or coils during the night
treat clothes with an insecticide registered for this purpose.
Pregnant women and children under five should not travel to malaria risk areas.

Symptoms of malaria include fever and flu-like illness such as shaking chills, headache, muscle aches and tiredness. Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea may occur. If not promptly treated, the infection can become severe and may cause kidney failure, seizures, mental confusion, coma and death.

The most important thing when treating malaria is to start early. Visit your healthcare provider immediately if you develop flu-like symptoms after visiting a malaria area. Malaria can be cured with prescription drugs. The type of drugs and length of treatment depend on the type of malaria, where you were infected, your age, whether you are pregnant and how sick you are when treatment is started.

Is caused by various disorders that damage the kidneys, particularly the basement membrane of the glomerulus. This immediately causes abnormal excretion of protein in the urine.The most common cause in children is minimal change disease, while membranous glomerulonephritis is the most common cause in adults.

Swelling (edema) is the most common symptom. It may occur:
In the face and around the eyes (facial swelling)
In the arms and legs, especially in the feet and ankles
In the belly area (swollen abdomen)
Abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, weakness or restlessness, signs of bleeding like rash, red or black stools and vomitus, red or tea-colored urine, and profuse vaginal bleeding in females with menses. These warning signs may progress to severe dengue after fever wanes, usually at 3-7 days of illness. This may manifest with severe bleeding, respiratory distress due to fluid accumulation in the lungs, hypotension, and other signs of organ involvement like impaired consciousness, and heart abnormalities. However, some patients recover before the critical phase sets in. As of present time, there are still no known predictive factors of who will develop severe or non-severe dengue.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES to avoid mosquito bites such as applying insect repellants,wearing protective clothing (long sleeves and pants), using insecticides cautiously, screening doors and windows, and using mosquito nets (kulambo).  

CONTROL MEASURES to eradicate breeding of the Aedes mosquitoes include covering and regular emptying and cleaning of water storage containers and other sites that usually collect water after the rains (unused tires, roof gutters, flower pots etc.)  Defogging is recommended only during an epidemic and larviciding is effective under certain conditions.

Dengue is caused by the dengue virus (DEN) belonging to the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. The dengue virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of a female Aedes mosquito principally Aedes aegypti, infected with dengue viruses. Mosquitoes bite people and animals because they need the protein found in blood to help develop their eggs. The symptoms of dengue appear 3-14 days after the infective bite.
There is still no specific treatment against dengue virus.  Early recognition and early intervention plays a vital role in the recovery from the disease.  The keys in the treatment of dengue are fluids, both oral and intravenous, depending on the phase and severity of illness; and close monitoring of clinical symptoms and parameters such as vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, pulses) and urine output, as well as laboratory work-ups like the complete blood count (CBC).

Rest until the flu is fully resolved, especially if the illness has been severe
Fluids — Drink enough fluids so that you do not become dehydrated. One way to judge if you are drinking enough is to look at the color of your urine. Normally, urine should be light yellow to nearly colorless. If you are drinking enough, you should pass urine every three to five hours.
Acetaminophen (such as Tylenol® and other brands) can relieve fever, headache, and muscle aches. Aspirin, and medicines that include aspirin (eg, bismuth subsalicylate; PeptoBismol), are not recommended for children under 18 because aspirin can lead to a serious disease called Reye syndrome.
Cough medicines are not usually helpful; cough usually resolves without treatment. We do not recommend cough or cold medicine for children under age six years. (See "Patient information: The common cold in children (Beyond the Basics)".)
Antiviral treatment — Antiviral medicines can be used to treat or prevent influenza. When used as a treatment, the medicine does not eliminate flu symptoms, although it can reduce the severity and duration of symptoms by about one day. Not every person with influenza needs an antiviral medicine, but some people do; the decision is based upon several factors. If you are severely ill and/or have risk factors for developing complications of influenza, you will need an antiviral agent. People who are only mildly ill and have no risk factors for complications are usually treated with an antiviral medicine if they have had symptoms for 48 hours or less, but they are not treated if they have had symptoms for more than 48 hours.

Vaccination is the best way to protect yourself from the flu. There are additional steps you can take to keep yourself and your family healthy this flu season.
Everyone 6 months of age and older should get vaccinated against the flu.
Take everyday precautions, like washing your hands, to protect your health.
If you are exposed to or caring for someone with the flu, talk to your doctor about preventive antiviral medications.
Shortness of breath
Breathing difficulty
Worsening of symptoms with exercise
Cough - with or without sputum
Coughing up blood
Chest pain
Noisy breathing
Loss of appetite
Weight loss
Bluish discoloration of fingers
Bluish discoloration of lips

Treatment of CLRD requires a careful and through evaluation by a physician. CLRD treatment can alleviate symptoms, decrease the frequency and severity of exacerbations, and increase exercise tolerance. For those who smoke, the most important aspect of treatment is smoking cessation. Avoiding tobacco smoke and removing other air pollutants from the patient’s home or workplace are also important. Symptoms such as coughing or wheezing can be treated with medication.6 Pulmonary rehabilitation is an individualized treatment program that teaches CLRD management strategies to increase quality of life. Plans may include breathing strategies, energy-conserving techniques, and nutritional counseling.

Avoid inhaling tobacco smoke, home and workplace air pollutants, and respiratory infections to prevent developing CLRD. Early detection of CLRD might change its course and progress. A simple test, called spirometry can be used to measure pulmonary—or lung—function and detect CLRD in anyone with breathing problems.

Always use a condom with water-based lubricant.
A simple swab or urine test will determine if you have chlamydia.
Chlamydia is easily treated with antibiotics. Sex should be avoided for 7 days after treatment – if you can’t do this then a condom must be used.
If you have been diagnosed with chlamydia it is important to let all your sexual partners from at least the past six months know so that they can be tested and treated if needed.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus in the herpes virus family. It is found in saliva, urine, and other body fluids and can be spread through sexual contact or other more casual forms of physical contact like kissing. In adults,

Swollen lymph glands, fever, and fatigue.

The drug of choice for treatment of CMV disease is intravenous ganciclovir, although valganciclovir may be used for nonsevere CMV treatment in selected cases.
Ganciclovir is a nucleoside analogue that inhibits DNA synthesis in the same manner as acyclovir. The major difference is that CMV does not contain a thymidine kinase.


Wash your hands often. Use soap and water for 15 to 20 seconds, especially if you have contact with young children or their diapers, drool or other oral secretions. This is especially important if the children attend child care.
Avoid contact with tears and saliva when you kiss a child. Instead of kissing a child on the lips, for instance, give a kiss on the forehead. This is especially important if you're pregnant.
Avoid sharing food or drinking out of the same glass as others. Sharing glasses and kitchen utensils can spread the CMV virus.
Be careful with disposable items. When disposing of diapers, tissues and other items that have been contaminated with bodily fluids, be careful not to touch your hands to your face until after thoroughly washing your hands.
Practice safe sex. Wear a condom during sexual contact to prevent spreading the CMV virus through semen and vaginal fluids.

Genital Herpes, which is usually caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), is a sexually transmitted disease that causes painful sores on the genitals. Women who have their first outbreak of genital herpes during pregnancy are at high risk of miscarriage or delivering a low birth weight baby.
Cracked, raw, or red areas around your genitals without pain, itching, or tingling
Itching or tingling around your genitals or your anal region
Small blisters that break open and cause painful sores. These may be on or around your genitals (penis or vagina) or on your buttocks, thighs, or rectal area. More rarely, blisters may occur inside the urethra -- the tube urine passes through on its way out of your body.
Pain from urine passing over the sores -- this is especially a problem in women.
Flu-like symptoms, including fever, swollen glands, and fatigue
There is no treatment that can cure herpes. Antiviral medications can, however, prevent or shorten outbreaks during the period of time the person takes the medication. In addition, daily suppressive therapy (i.e., daily use of antiviral medication) for herpes can reduce the likelihood of transmission to partners.
Use, or have your partner use, a latex condom during each sexual contact
Limit the number of sex partners
Avoid intercourse if either partner has an outbreak of herpes in the genital area or anywhere else

 Normal blood pressure readings will fall below 120/80, while higher results over time can indicate hypertension. In most cases, the underlying cause of hypertension is unknown. The top number (systolic) shows the pressure when your heart beats. The lower number (diastolic) measures pressure at rest between heartbeats, when the heart refills with blood. Occasionally, kidney or adrenal gland disease can lead to hypertension.

 You have high blood pressure if readings average140/90 or higher -- for either number -- though you may still have no symptoms. At 180/110 and higher, you may be having a hypertensive crisis. Rest for a few minutes and take your blood pressure again. If it is still very high, call 911. A hypertensive crisis can lead to a stroke, heart attack, kidney damage, or loss of consciousness. Symptoms of a hypertensive crisis can include a severe headache, anxiety, nosebleeds, and feeling short of breath.

 Up to the age of 45, more men have high blood pressure than women. It becomes more common for both men and women as they age, and more women have hypertension by the time they reach 65. You have a greater risk if a close family member has high blood pressure or if you are diabetic. About 60% of people with diabetes have high blood pressure.

Medications are the cornerstone of tuberculosis treatment. But treating TB takes much longer than treating other types of bacterial infections. With tuberculosis, you must take antibiotics for at least six to nine months. The exact drugs and length of treatment depend on your age, overall health, possible drug resistance, the form of TB (latent or active) and the infection's location in the body.

Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)
Ethambutol (Myambutol)

1. Serious medical illness and surgery produce a state of increased insulin resistance
2. Controlling your blood sugar is essential to feeling healthy and avoiding long-term complications of diabetes.
3. Diet, exercise and weight reduction should be the cornerstone of management.
4. Medications used to treat diabetes include insulin. Medications such as thiazides, used to control high blood pressure, and niacin, used for high cholesterol, also may increase blood sugar.
5. Drugs and foods known to affect the CYP3A4 system need to be used cautiously in patients treated with atorvastatin, lovastatinFeature Articles, or simvastatin because these agents are largely metabolized through that system.

Foamy appearance of the urine
Weight gain (unintentional) from fluid retention
Poor appetite
High blood pressure

The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications and delay progressive kidney damage. Treatment of the disorder that causes the condition is necessary to control nephrotic syndrome. Treatment may be needed for life.Controlling blood pressure is the most important measure to delay kidney damage. The goal is to keep blood pressure at or below 130/80 mmHg. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are the medicines most often used in this case. ACE inhibitors may also help decrease the amount of protein loss in the urine.Corticosteroids and other drugs that suppress or quiet the immune system may be used.

Culture of the sputum

Treatment with antibiotics
Heart disease is a broad term used to describe a range of diseases that affect your heart. The various diseases that fall under the umbrella of heart disease include diseases of your blood vessels, such as coronary artery disease; heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias); heart infections; and heart defects you're born with (congenital heart defects).

The term "heart disease" is often used interchangeably with "cardiovascular disease." Cardiovascular disease generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as infections and conditions that affect your heart's muscle, valves or beating rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease.
The signs and symptoms of coronary heart disease (CHD) may differ between women and men. Some women who have CHD have no signs or symptoms. This is called silent CHD.
Silent CHD may not be diagnosed until a woman has signs and symptoms of a heart attack, heart failure, or an arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat).
Other women who have CHD will have signs and symptoms of the disease.
Chest Discomfort
Nausea or Loss of Appetite
Pain in the other parts of the body
Rapid or irregular pulse
Shortness of breath
Treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD) usually is the same for both women and men. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, medicines, medical and surgical procedures, and cardiac rehabilitation (rehab).
The goals of treatment are to:
Relieve symptoms.
Reduce risk factors in an effort to slow, stop, or reverse the buildup of plaque.
Lower the risk of blood clots forming. (Blood clots can cause a heart attack.)
Widen or bypass plaque-clogged coronary (heart) arteries.
Prevent CHD complications.

Quit smoking
Follow a healthy diet
Be physically active
Maintain a healthy weight
Reduce your heart's workload and relieve CHD symptoms
Decrease your chance of having a heart attack or dying suddenly
Lower your LDL cholesterol, blood pressure, and other CHD risk factors
Prevent blood clots
Prevent or delay the need for a procedure or surgery, such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
ANGIOPLASTY - is a nonsurgical procedure that opens blocked or narrowed coronary arteries. This procedure also is called percutaneous coronary intervention, or PCI. Angioplasty can improve blood flow to your heart and relieve chest pain. A small mesh tube called a stent usually is placed in the artery to help keep it open after the procedure.
CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING- CABG is a type of surgery. During CABG, a surgeon removes arteries or veins from other areas in your body and uses them to bypass (that is, go around) narrowed or blocked coronary arteries. CABG can improve blood flow to your heart, relieve chest pain, and possibly prevent a heart attack.
CARDIAC REHABILITATION - Your doctor may prescribe cardiac rehab for angina or after angioplasty, CABG, or a heart attack. Almost everyone who has CHD can benefit from cardiac rehab. Cardiac rehab is a medically supervised program that can improve the health and well-being of people who have heart problems.
Chest pain or chest discomfort (angina)
Pain in one or both arms, the left shoulder, neck, jaw, or back
Shortness of breath
Faster heartbeats
Nausea (feeling sick to your stomach)
Abnormal heartbeats
Feeling very tired

Following cigarette smoking, the major factor that contributes to heart disease is one's diet. There are several dietary changes that can help prevent the onset of heart disease. Start by eating less red meat and dairy products. For protein, you can eat fish, skinless chicken and turkey. Avoid tobacco, alcohol, chocolate, sugar, fatty foods, fried foods, spicy foods, soft drinks, and all processed foods such as white bread.
Make sure that you get enough essential fatty acids, particularly omega 3. Eating fish provides the availability of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, a low fat-to-protein ratio, and a high mineral content, particularly in ocean fish. The beneficial fats may help prevent cardiovascular disease.
A high fiber content in your diet is helpful. Eating lots of raw foods such as salads, fruits, and vegetables supplies an adequate level of fiber. Cooking tends to break down the fiber of most foods.
Low sodium diets are beneficial in preventing heart disease. Eliminate foods that are high in salt content. Some foods and additives to avoid include foods with preservatives or mold inhibitors, canned vegetables, diet soft drinks, meat tenderizers, commercially prepared foods, MSG, Saccharin, and baking soda.
Studies have shown that there are several nutritional supplements that can be helpful in heart disease prevention. As in the case of the herbs, each of these supplements has its own properties and each one can have severe side effects if taken inappropriately. The heart-helping supplements are coenzyme Q10, calcium, magnesium, L-carnitine, lecithin, potassium, selenium, vitamin E, essential fatty acids, copper, multienzyme complex, bromelain, vitamin B complex, vitamin C.
Any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream. In general, tumors occur when cells divide excessively in the body. Typically, cell division is strictly controlled. New cells are created to replace older ones or to perform new functions. Cells that are damaged or no longer needed die to make room for healthy replacements.
If the balance of cell division and death is disturbed, a tumor may form. Problems with the body's immune system can lead to tumors. Tobacco causes more deaths from cancer than any other environmental substance. Other causes include:
Benzene and other chemicals and toxins
Drinking too much alcohol
Environmental toxins, such as certain poisonous mushrooms and a type of poison that can grow on peanut plants (aflatoxins)
Excessive sunlight exposure
Genetic problems

Types of tumors known to be caused by viruses are:
Cervical cancer (human papillomavirus)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatitis B virus)
Some tumors are more common in one gender than the other. Some are more common among children or the elderly. Others are related to diet, environment, and family history.

The American Cancer Society uses the word C-A-U-T-I-O-N to help recognize the seven early signs of cancer:
C-hange in bowel or bladder habits
A-sore that does not heal
U-nusual bleeding or discharge
T-hickening or lump in the breast, testicles, or elsewhere
I-ndigestion or difficulty swallowinG
O-bvious change in the size, color, shape, or thickness of a wart, mole, or mouth sore
N-agging cough or hoarseness

The following symptoms may also signal the presence of some types of cancer:
Persistent headaches
Unexplained loss of weight or loss of appetite
Chronic pain in bones or any other areas of the body
Persistent fatigue, nausea, or vomiting
Persistent low-grade fever, either constant or intermittent
Repeated infection

Like the symptoms, the signs of tumors vary based on their site and type. Some tumors are obvious, such as skin cancer. However, most cancers cannot be seen during an exam because they are deep inside the body.
When a tumor is found, a biopsy is performed to determine if the tumor is noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Depending on the location of the tumor, the biopsy may be a simple procedure or a serious operation.
Most patients with tumors have CT or MRI scans to determine the exact location of the tumor and how far it has spread. More recently, positron emission tomography (PET) scans have been used to find certain tumor types.
Other tests include:
Biopsy of the tumor
Blood tests (to look for chemicals such as tumor markers)
Bone marrow biopsy (most often for lymphoma or leukemia)
Chest x-ray
Complete blood count (CBC)
Treatment varies based on:
The type of tumor
Whether it is noncancerous or cancerous
Its location
If the tumor is benign (meaning it has no potential to spread) and is located in a "safe" area where it will not cause symptoms or affect the function of the organ, sometimes no treatment is needed.
Sometimes benign tumors may be removed for cosmetic reasons, however. Benign tumors of the brain may be removed because of their location or harmful effect on the surrounding normal brain tissue.
If a tumor is cancerous, possible treatments include:
A combination of these methods
If the cancer is in one location, the goal of treatment is usually to remove the tumor with surgery. If the tumor has spread to local lymph nodes only, sometimes these can also be removed. If all of the cancer cannot be removed with surgery, the options for treatment include radiation and chemotherapy, or both. Some patients need a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
Lymphoma (cancer of the lymph glands) is rarely treated with surgery. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are most often used for treating lymphoma.
There is no known prevention for cancer, but certain risk factors can be avoided. Quitting smoking can reduce risk of lung cancer and several other cancers. Limiting exposure to UV light can reduce risk of skin cancer. Immunizations may help prevent some types since certain viruses can lead to the disease, including hepatitis B, which increases the risk of liver cancer, and human papillomavirus, which can increase the risk of cervical cancer. A healthy diet and exercise are linked to lower risk of cancers.
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