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Copy of Implications of Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities

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Monica Young

on 14 September 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Implications of Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities

Implications of Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities by Monica Young
FONTS
Chapter 2 Learning and Behavioral Characteristics of Students with Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities
Chapter 2 explains how it is crucial for teachers to have a clear understanding of how physical, health, or multiple disabilities impact student's learning and behavioral functions on academic performance. Chapter 2 also provides a bases for educators to understand how a student's school performance is affected by physical, health, or multiple disabilities and how teachers should plan instruction and provide appropriate effective interventions to assist students in the classroom.

Chapter 3 Learning and Behavioral Characteristics of Students with Significant Intellectual Disabilities
Chapter 3 defines and outlines intellectual disability and explains the cognitive and communication characteristics that affect behavior and academic performances regarding students with intellectual disabilities.
Chapter 4 Motor Development: Characteristics and Interventions
Chapter 1 Understanding Disabilities and Effective Teaming
Chapter 1 introduces the characteristics and types of disabilities and the appropriate terminology used when referring to students with disabilities. Chapter 1 also gives teachers and educators resources as to how to gain insight and information on the various types of disabilities that affect students. Last, chapter 1 discusses the importance of team members and the different team models and how to effectively use the strategies to facilitate learning.

Part I
The purpose of Part I is to introduce the characteristics of students with physical, health, and multiple disabilities, and how learning and behavior are impacted. Part I also gives teachers sound ideas and effective tools on the different types of interventions that are needed to meet students with physical, health, or multiple disabilities academic needs. Last, Part I covers the appropriate terminology used, different team models and collaborative teamwork , theories, and motor development that are important when assisting students with disabilities.

Purpose and Goal: The information in Part I will help educators become more familiar with identifying the characteristics of physical, health, and multiple disabilities and how they impact learning and behavior. In order to meet the needs of students with disabilities, it is important for educators to form teams and collaborate amongst each other on finding effective strategies and instructional methods that support student learning. FInally, it is also beneficial that teachers know and understand the terminology , underlying causes and outcomes, and theories associated with disabilities and their impact on students with disabilities.
Categories of Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities
1. Orthopedic Impairment-must be severe enough to adversely affect the child's educational performance. The term includes impairment caused by congenital anomaly (e.g., club foot, absences of some members), caused by disease (e.g, bone tuberculosis,etc.) and other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures , etc.)

2. Other health impairment-results in having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including heightened alertness to environment that is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit, diabetes, heart condition, sickle cell anemia, etc.

3. Multiple Disabilities-refers to concomitant impairments (e.g., mental retardation, blindness) the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairment.

4. Traumatic Brain Injury-refers to an acquired injury to the brain caused by external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.
Understanding Physical Health, and Multiple Disabilities, 2009)
Six Major Categories of Conditions based on Medical Characteristics and Educational Implications
1. Neuromotor impairment includes disorders that affect the nerves and muscles.
2. Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal disorders can occur singularly (e.g., osteogenesis imperfecta) or can occur in combination with other conditions such as scoliosis and hip dislocation being found in students with cerebral palsy or vision impairment or occurring with some types of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
3. Degenerative and Terminal Diseases-students are faced with a progressive loss of function, and conditions which are terminal may leave students with issues surrounding death and dying.
4.Health Impairments-Are not typically discernible on seeing the student but may severely affect student functioning such as asthma, diabetes, etc).
5. Infectious Diseases- acquired diseases that can be devasating such as hepatiitis and AIDS.
6. Sensory Disorders-placed under Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal disorders since many of these occur concomitantly in multiple disabilities. (
Understanding Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities, 2009)
Team Models

1. Multidisciplinary Team Model- Each professional with expertise in a different discipline evaluates and works with the student individually.
2. Interdisciplinary Team Model-does not provide a formal structure for interaction and communication among members of the team, encouraging a sharing of information.
3. Transdisciplinary Team Model consists of sharing information and skills across discipline-specific boundaries. Integrated Therapy falls under this model where services are conducted in the natural environments, students taught functional activities in a natural environment, and outcomes verified in natural environment.
4. Collaborative Team Model team members bring their own perspective to the team where these perspectives evolve and change through planned, regular interaction with other team members. One way to achieve collaborative teaming is by using the Coaching Approach. The Coaching Approach is a voluntary, nonjudgmental, and collaborative learning partnership between two individuals, the coach, and the learner.
(
Understanding Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities, 2009)
Strategies to Facilitate Effective Collaborative Teamwork
A. Assessment
1. Background Information
2. Student Observation
3. Discipline-Specific Information
B. Development of Instructional Goals
I. Characteristics that affect learning and Instruction
A. Cognitive Characteristics
1. Cognitive Development
2. Attending
3. Memory
4. Synthesizing Information
B. Communication Characteristics
1. Symbolic and Non symbolic Communication
2. Verbal Language
II. Characteristics that affect Behavior
A. Social Characteristics
1. Play Behavior
2. Friendships
3. Self-determination and Locus of Control
III. Academic Performance
A. Skills Learned and Generalized
B. Direct and Observational Learning
C. Functional Academics
1. Literacy
2. Arithmetic
Chapter four discusses the different theories of motor development that continually change over the years and discusses information about muscle tone, joint structure, reflexes, and reactions.
Overview and Goals
Theories of Motor Development
1. Cognitive Theories - development is thought to occur in stages when new learning takes place.
2. Neuromaturationist Theories-assume that development occurs as a result of maturation of the central nervous system.
3. Dynamical Systems Theory- an open, process-oriented, and functional perspective on motor development. Understanding Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities, 2009)
Atypical Motor Development-dysfunctional skill development to include Atypical muscle tone, persistence of primitive reflexes, and Atypical posture control and movement.
Impact of Atypical tone and reflexes on functioning: Movement and Mobility
Eating Problems
Bowel and Bladder Issues
Respiratory Problems
Speech Impairments
Secondary Orthopedic Changes

Approaches to Intervention include Neurodevelopmental Treatment Approach is aimed to to help the child learn new patterns of movement.
Sensory Integration Approach- facilitates the child's ability to make adaptive responses to specific sensory stimulation.
Mobility Opportunities via Education Approach is used to help children systematically develop motor skills. (Understanding Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities, 2009)
*Terminology to describe students with disabilities include: Impairment refers to the presence of a specific-condition that results in an abnormality. Disability refers to a reduction or loss of ability. Handicap refers to an impairment or disability that is a disadvantage for that individual and that limits or restricts the individual from doing something. (
Understanding Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities, 2009)
What's Next:

Throughout the year, I would like to present information on:

Teaching Methods used in the classroom that work to help students with Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities succeed.

Technology in the Classroom

Assistive and adaptive devices for students with disabilities

Type of Disability:
Neuromotor impairments
Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Impairments
Degenerative and terminal Diseases
Health Impairments
Multiple Disabilities
Sensory Impairments
Functional Effects:
Atypical movements and motor abilities
Sensory Loss
Communication Impairments
Fatigue and Lack of Endurance
Experimental Deficits
Cognitive Impairments and Processing Issues
Health Factors
Psychosocial and Environmental Factors:
Motivation
Self-Concept
Self-Advocacy
Social Environment and Social Competence
Behavioral and Emotional Functioning
Learning and Attitudinal Environments
Physical and technological Environments

Reference


Schwartzman, M.N.,Heller,
K.W.,Forney, P.E., Best, J.,
&Alberto, P.A. (2009).

Understanding Physical,
Health, and Multiple
Disabilities
(pp.3-70).Upper
Saddle River, New Jersey:
Pearson Education.
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