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Judaism

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by

Emily Tran

on 23 October 2015

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Transcript of Judaism

"... a nation of philosophers."
- Megasthenes
Gender Issues
Joseph B. Solovietchik , a very influential rabbi in modern day Judaism, believed that while women could do everything a man could there was no Jewish law that permitted as such.
In traditional synagogues men and women are separated so they can focus without being distracted by the opposite gender.
It wasn't until 2013 that there was an institution dedicated to female clergy (rabbis).
Slowly but surely females are becoming more equal in Judaism
Origins
Judaism originated in the Middle East area around
modern day Israel and Palestinian territories.

It began during the
Bronze age around 1800 B.C.E.
and was
established as a structured religion in 1900s B.C.E.
Founder
The Jewish Synagogue
The Jewish house of worship is a synagogue, but they also use synagogues for a place of study and education, social and charitable work, and meeting. Jews often refer to the synagogue as
Shul
, and in the United States they’re called temples.

Major Beliefs
Judaism
Diffusion of Judaism
Holy Book(s)
The Torah is the holy book of Judaism.
Contains the teachings that were presented to Moses by God.
Consists of the first five books of the bible, which are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
When reading the Torah, no one is allowed to touch it, therefore, a yad is used to follow words when reading it.
Cultural Effect
The Religious Leader
Judaism doesn't have a main leader like other churches. Instead, rabbis lead the temples.
God or Gods and Adherents' View of the Divine
There is no specification on who God is, but in the Torah, it begins by stating “In the beginning, G-d created…”, and God is also refered as Yahweh.
Jews believe in one living God who is:
transcendent
omnipotent
just
reveals himself to human beings.
In Judaism no one is allowed to say God's name, except the high priest. (High Priest = Hebrew kohen gadol)
Roles of Rabbi
Ritual
Symbols
By Austin, Aruksh, Emily, Faith, & Valerie
teacher, a person sufficiently educated in halakhah
Diaspora
: the dispersion of Jews beyond Israel
Abraham is known to be the founding father of this religion.
He is the connection between humans and God.
Lived in Ur, Babylon (now Iraq)
God made him an offer: if Abraham would leave his home and family, God would make him a great nation and bless him.
Abraham then traveled the lands of what is now Israel and Palestine and shared his knowledge with others.
The agreement between Abraham and God is thought to be established around 1812 B.C.
Cantors
-lead worship
-officiate at lifecycle
events
-teach adults and
children
-run synagogue
music programs
-offer pastoral care
The Mitzvot

The Hebrew word "commandments"
The 613 Commandments:
The important Jewish philosopher Maimonides made a list of the 613 commandments he found in the Jewish Bible, and here they are.
Rabbinic Law
The Synagogue
Worship & Prayer
Keeping Kosher: Dietary Laws
Prague
Hungary
Hungary
New York
Czech Republic
Budapest
Israel
Practices

Jewish Worship and Prayer:
Guide to characteristics of Jewish worship and prayer, the weekday and Sabbath prayer services and etiquette for visitors.
Five Most Holy
Jewish Holidays
Rosh Hashana
Also referred to as the Jewish New Year.
Work is usually not permitted on this day most of day is spent in a synagogue.
Traditions:
Eating apples dipped honey in hopes of a sweet New Year.
Tashlikh or "casting off" is when Jews walk to running water( creek, river etc.) and empty their pockets to symbolize casting away their sins.
Yom Kippur
Called the day of atonement, this day is about atonement and repentance.
Jews observe this holiday with a 25 hour fasting period and intensive prayer. Work is not permitted.
Passover

This holiday is all about the commemoration and the story of Exodus, in which the Jews were freed from slavery in Egypt.
Observed for eight or seven days.
This holiday comes with a whole list of rituals that must be enacted.
Shavuot
Celebrates the anniversary of when the Jews received the Torah. Also celebrated as a harvest festival.
China
Synagogues Around the World
Sukkot
Remembers the 40 years of the Israel children wandered in the desert
Also recognized as a harvest festival
Sukkahs were the temporary homes the Jews had to live in during the time of wandering. They were light but sturdy and portable. Many kids on this holiday will reconstruct one of these as a "fort".
The Star of David
The star of David or the shield of David originated in the Middle East as a symbol for good luck. Its association with Judaism is fairly recent and its use on Israel's flag was highly debated.
Menorah
The Menorah is a symbol of Israel and its misson to "light a path unto other nations". Its origins come from the story of how oil meant for one day lasted for eight days.
Yarmulke
The yarmulke, pronounced yammica, is a head covering worn during prayer. It isn't required but is a form of respect. The Hebrew term is kippah while yarmulke is the Yiddish term.
10 Commandments
13 Principles of Faith
G-d exists
G-d is one and unique
G-d is incorporeal
G-d is eternal
Prayer is to be directed to G-d alone and to no other
The words of the prophets are true
Moses' prophecies are true, and Moses was the greatest of the prophets
The Written Torah (first 5 books of the Bible) and Oral Torah (teachings now contained in the Talmud and other writings) were given to Moses
There will be no other Torah
G-d knows the thoughts and deeds of men
G-d will reward the good and punish the wicked
The Messiah will come
The dead will be resurrected
You shall have no other gods before Me.
You shall not make idols.
You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain.
Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.
Honor your father and your mother.
You shall not murder.
You shall not commit adultery.
You shall not steal.
You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
You shall not covet.
*These are the same 10 Commandments followed in Christianity*
In the front of the prayer hall there is an
Ark
, a cabinet used to hold the Torah.
In front and slightly above the Ark there is the
ner tamid, or eternal lamp.
In front of the room there is also a pedestal called the
bimah
where the Torah is placed when read. The bimah is also used as a podium to lead services.
A
menorah
will also be in the prayer hall also. It will have 6,7, or 8 candles, depending on how traditional the synagogue is. Traditional synagogues will have 6 or 8 rather than 7 because the Temple has 7 and replicating the temple is improper.
Hungary
this is a shofar it's an instrument that is often played at synagogue services
Rabbis are expected to be taught in both the
Talmud
and the Shulkhan
Arukh

Kohen = Rabbi
Rabbi ≠ Kohen
They say the blessing over the Torah during religious services
What is Kohen?
Restrictions:
Forbidden to be in the same place as a dead body
Prohibited from marrying a woman who is a divorcee or a convert.
Jewish people make up less than one hundredth of 1 percent of the world
population, yet they account for
some 18 percent of the Nobel Prizes awarded in the twentieth century
The focus of the Jewish culture
moves with the focus of the world
Jews originated in the modern day Israel/ Palestine area
As the years went on the jews would have to keep moving in order to survive through exile and conflict
The 4 Holy Cities
Jerusalem: Holiest city in the Jewish faith- has been the spiritual center for Jewish people since the beginning; where the Holy Temples have been located

Hebron: Burial site of the Jewish patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, etc); first capital of Jewish people before Jerusalem

Safed: Great amount of famous and holy rabbis are buried here

Tiberias: City of learning for Judaism in 18th and 19th centuries whenever Jewish existence in Israel was dangerous
Full transcript