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World History Chapter 3 Section 2: New Empires of India
Transcript of World History Chapter 3 Section 2: New Empires of India
New Empires in India New Indian empires grew rich through trade and left a lasting legacy of accomplishments. Three New Empires: Warring kingdoms united to force out invaders, which led to three Indian empires. The Mauryan Empire The Mauryan Empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C. This Indian Empire was a highly centralized state, and governors ruled its many provinces.
Aśoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, is generally considered the greatest ruler in the history of India. After his conversion to Buddhism, he used Buddhist ideals to guide his rule. Aśoka set up hospitals for the welfare of both people and animals. He ordered shelters and trees be placed along roads, and commerce increased in the empire.
After Aśoka's death in 232 B.C., the Mauryan Empire began to decline. In 183 B.C., the last Mauryan leader was killed by one of his won soldiers, and India fell into disunity. The Kushaān Empire The Kushān Empire rose to power when nomadic warriors seized power in the first century A.D. The Kushans grew wealthy from trade, specifically from travel on the Silk Road which stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea. The Gupta Empire In A.D. 320, the Gupta Empire was formed by Candra Gupta in the Ganges Valley. Due to good leadership, the Gupta Empire created a new age of Indian civilization. The Gupta Empire
actively engaged in trade with China and other states in southeast Asia and the Mediterranean region. Domestic trade of salt, cloth, and iron increased, and cities
along the trade routes
prospered. Much of their wealth came from pilgrims who came from all over India and China to visit the major religious centers. Faxian spent several years in the Gupta Empire in the 5th Century BC, and wrote of the Gupta rulers, their practice of Buddhism, and the prosperity of the empire. In the late fifth century A.D., Huns from the northwest attacked the empire, weakening it. In the middle of the seventh century, the empire collapsed, and north India would not be reunited for centuries. India produced great works in almost all cultural fields, including literature, architecture, and science. Indian Accomplishments The Vedas were recorded in Sanskrit and contained religious chants and stories. Literature India’s great epics, the Mahabharata and Ramayana, tell of the legendary deeds of Great Indian warriors. The most famous section of the book, called the Bhagavad Gita, is a sermon by the god Krishna on the eve of a major battle. One of the most popular Sanskrit poems, The Cloud Messenger, was written by the Gupta era poet Kālidāsa. Architecture Indian architecture was influenced by Buddhism. The three main types of structures were religious in nature, and were... #1 the pillar, #2 the stupa, and #3, the rock chamber. Science Indians charted the movements of the stars and recognized the Earth was a sphere that rotated on its axis and revolved around the Sun. Mathematics ĀAryabhata was a famous mathematician of the Gupta Empire who used algebra. Indian mathematicians also introduced the concept of the zero, and used a symbol (0) for it. This numerical system—the Indian-Arabic numerical system—was adopted by Arab scholars, and eventually by Europeans.